Rahasia 4 Essay Writing IELTS

Langkah-Langkah Taktis Mengerjakan Soal Esai IELTS

Oleh: Endro Dwi Hatmanto, MA

 

Pada Bab ini, kita akan latihan mengerjakan soal esai IELTS langkah demi langkah. Untuk itu saya akan mengajak Anda untuk mengingat kembali bahwa Anda akan menggunakan langkah-langkah yang berbeda untuk soal yang berbeda. Lihat kembali langkah-langkah yang berbeda untuk mengerjakan jenis soal yang berbeda di bawah ini:

 

Tipe Esai Jenis Pertanyaan Yang Harus Anda Lakukan
Problem/solution (masalah dan pemecahan) What can be done to solve…?How can this problem be addressed?What challenges…?

What strategies…?

  • Jelaskan 2 atau 3 aspek dalam topik yang ditanyakan (masing-masing aspek satu paragraf).
  • Berikan rekomendasi
Agree or disagree (setuju dan tidak setuju) Do you agree or disagree? Why? Explain your position.Justify your opinion.
  • Ambil posisi Anda (setuju atau tidak setuju)
  • Dukung posisi Anda dengan alasan-alasan
  • Adalah penting bagi Anda untuk menyajikan pendapat yang bertentangan dengan Anda dan katakan mengapa Anda tidak setuju dengan gagasan itu.
Two sides of an argument (dua sisi dari satu argumen) Discuss Compare/contrastAdvantages/disatvantages
  • Ulaslah secara seimbang/ dua sisi dari topik yant dibicarakan.
  • Tentukan posisi Anda dalam kesimpulan.
Make choices and justify (membuat pilihan disertai alasan) From option A, B, C, D, E choose 3 most important. Justify your choice.
  • Pilihlah satu pilihan dan berilah argumentasi atas pilihan tersebut.

 

Marilah kita coba praktekkan strategi di atas pada soal-soal esai dalam IELTS.

 

Contoh soal 1

 

As computers are being used more and more in education, there will be soon no role for teaches in the classrrom. To what extent do you agree?  

 

Untuk mengerjakan soal di atas, marilah kita terapkan strategi-strategi berikut ini:

 

Langkah 1: Menulis Pembukaan

 

Soal di atas menanyakan kepada Anda sejauh mana Anda setuju atau tidak setuju terhadap masalah di atas.Untuk pertanyaan ‘to what extent’, Anda tidak harus setuju atau tidak setuju seratus persen. Dengan kata lain, Anda boleh setuju sebagian dan tidak setuju sebagian.

 

Selanjutnya, mari kita pahami soal di atas. Pertanyaan di atas mengajukan opini bahwa dengan penggunaan komputer yang semakin banyak dalam dunia pendidikan, guru tidak akan diperlukan lagi di masa depan.

 

Nah, pembukaan Anda harus meninjau peran komputer yang semakin penting dalam pendidikan.Jangan lupa, pada akhir pembukaan, Anda harus menulis posisi Anda atau ‘thesis statement’. Simak contoh berikut:

 

There is not doubt that education and the learning process has changed since the introduction of computers. The search for information has become easier and amusing, and connectivity has expedited the data availabity. Though expert systems have made computers more intelligent, they have not yet become a substitute of the human interaction in the learning process. In my opinion, what can be expected is a change of the teachers’ role but not their disappeareance from the classroom.

 

Keterangan:

 

Nah, pada pembukaan di atas kita membicarakan bahwa pendidikan dan proses pembelajaran telah berubah karena adanya komputer. Contohnya, mencari informasi menjadi mudah dan menyenangkan.Konektifias memungkinkan tersedianya data yang melimpah.Namun meskipun teknologi komputer sudah canggih misalnya ‘expert system’, teknologi komputer belum dapat menggantikan peran interaksi manusia.

 

Setelah berbicara tentang sekelumit peran teknologi informasi, Anda kemudian menuliskan ‘thesis statement’ Anda, yaitu kalimat terakhir pada pembukaan yang digaris bawahi:

 

In my opinion, what can be expected is a change of the teachers’ role but not their disappeareance from the classroom.  

 

Nah, ‘thesis statement’ ini mengindikaskan bahwa Anda tidak setuju jika peran guru dihilangkan di kelas.Yang harus dilakukan adalah perubahan peran dari guru.

 

Langkah 2: menulis batang tubuh (body of paragraph)

 

Untuk menentukan gagasan Apa yang hendak Anda tulis, Anda perlu melakukan ‘brainstorming’. Dari hasil ‘brainstorming’, Anda mendapatkan gagasan-gagasan sebagai berikut:

  • Body paragraph 1: The acquisition of knowledge is more fun and easier with computer–Touching and exploring devices is enjoyable, relaxing attitude due to software connectivity, accessible sources of information.
  • Body paragraph 2: The needs of human interaction in learning process will always be present— teachers determine needs of students, teachers function can be mimicked by computers.
  • Body of paragraph 3: Teachers should be guides in the acquisition of knowledge rather than transmitter of facts—open minded, keep updated, serves as problem solvers in the learning process.

 

 

Selanjutnya marilah kita mulai menulis body of paragraph satu persatu:

 

Nobody can argue that the acquisition of knowledge is more fun and easier with computers. The mere activity of touching and exploring this device constitutes and enjoyable task for a kid. This, accompanied with the relaxing attitude and software interactivity, usually conduce to a better grasping of new knowledge. At a higher educational level; the availability of digital books, simulator and other academic materials, provide the student with an ever accessible source of information, that otherwise would not be at hand.

 

But, besides the increasing complexity and behavior of intelligent software, which is usually embedded in the academic digital material, the need of human interaction in the learning process will always be present, at least in the foreseeable future. There is the necessary for a human being to be able to determine what the specific needs of each individual are. The expertise of a teacher in how to explain and adapt complex concepts to different individual can hardly be mimicked by a computer, no matter how sophisticated its software is.

 

As computers are becoming a common tool for teaching, teachers should be more aware of their role as guides in the acquisition of knowledge rather than transmitter of facts. They have to be open minded to the changes that re taking place, keep updated and serve as a problem solvers in the learning process, thus allowing students to discover he facts for themselves.

 

Keterangan:

Dalam ‘body of paragraph 1’ di atas, Anda menulis hal-hal yang positif tentang penggunaan komputer dalam pendidikan. Pada awal paragraf Anda menggunakan frase ‘no body can argue’ (tak seorangpun dapat menyangkal).

 

Dalam ‘body of paragraph 2’ Anda menulis bahwa walaupun komputer membawa dampak-dampak positif dalam pendidikan, peran guru dan interaksi manusia tetaplah penting.Nah, Anda dapat membuka dengan ‘but’.

 

 

 

Langkah 3: menulis kesimpulan

 

Setelah Anda selesai menulis batang tubuh, tulislah kesimpulan, seperti contoh di bawah ini:

 

To summarize, in my personal views, teachers play and will play an important role in the classroom, especially at the primary level. No matter how complex computers become, there will be no replacement for the human interaction, but in the way this interaction takes place.

 

Nah, simaklah bahwa kesimpulan di atas adalah pengulangan kembali posisi Anda yang tersebut dalam ‘thesis statement’. Dengan kata lain Anda menegaskan kembali bahwa bagaimanapun komputer tidak akan menggantikan guru dalam kelas. Komputer tidak akan menggantikan interaksi manusia, namun hanya mempengaruhi cara manusia berinteraksi.

 

Esai Utuh

 

Inilah esai utuh yang telah kita tulis di atas:

 

There is not doubt that education and the learning process has changed since the introduction of computers. The search for information has become easier and amusing, and connectivity has expedited the data availabity. Though expert systems have made computers more intelligent, they have not yet become a substitute of the human interaction in the learning process. In my opinion, what can be expected is a change of the teachers’ role but not their disappeareance from the classroom.   Nobody can argue that the acquisition of knowledge is more fun and easier with computers. The mere activity of touching and exploring this device constitutes and enjoyable task for a kid. This, accompanied with the relaxing attitude and software interactivity, usually conduce to a better grasping of new knowledge. At a higher educational level; the availability of digital books, simulator and other academic materials, provide the student with an ever accessible source of information, that otherwise would not be at hand.

 

But, besides the increasing complexity and behavior of intelligent software, which is usually embedded in the academic digital material, the need of human interaction in the learning process will always be present, at least in the foreseeable future. There is the necessary for a human being to be able to determine what the specific needs of each individual are. The expertise of a teacher in how to explain and adapt complex concepts to different individual can hardly be mimicked by a computer, no matter how sophisticated its software is.

 

As computers are becoming a common tool for teaching, teachers should be more aware of their role as guides in the acquisition of knowledge rather than transmitter of facts. They have to be open minded to the changes that re taking place, keep updated and serve as a problem solvers in the learning process, thus allowing students to discover he facts for themselves.

 

To summarize, in my personal views, teachers play and will play an important role in the classroom, especially at the primary level. No matter how complex computers become, there will be no replacement for the human interaction, but in the way this interaction takes place.

 

Contoh soal 2

 

Improvement in health, education and trade are essential for the development of poorer nations. However, the governments of richer nations should take more responsibility for helping the poorer nations in such areas. Do you agree with this opinion?

 

Langkah 1: Menulis introduction

 

Ada tiga kata kunci dalam soal di atas yakni; ‘health’, ‘education’ dan ‘trade’.Nah, tiga kata kunci ini harus masuk dalam bagian ‘introduction’ Anda. Soal dalam kalimat kedua berbunyi,‘The government of richer nations should take more responsibility for helping the poorer nations in such areas’. Ini berarti bahwa dalam ‘thesis statement’ Anda dapat mengaitkan ide ‘health’, ‘education’ dan ‘trade’ dengan tanggung jawab dari negara maju untuk menolong negara berkembang.

 

Lihat satu contoh untuk pembukaan dalam soal di atas.

 

Today’s world has been divided into developing and industrialised countries where the main difference between them is the amount of money that government apply in important sectors such as education, health and commerce. Most of the poorer nations are buried in debts as a result of their unbalanced finances which are reflected in a poorer health care, an unstructured education system and a weak international trade. This vicious cycle will continue indefinitely unless wealthier nations show interest in minimizing the worldwide economic differences, as well as taking more responsibility for assisting unfortunate countries.

 

Langkah 2: menulis body of paragraph

 

Perhatikan, ‘thesis statement’ dalam kalimat di atas adalah kalimat yang digarisbawahi.‘Thesis statement’ di atas mengindikaskan bahwa di dalam ‘body of paragraph’ Anda harus menulis tentang langkah-langkah negara maju  dalam membantu negara-negara yang kurang maju dalam bidang kesehatan, pendidikan dan ekonomi.

 

Dari ‘brainstorming’ yang sudah dilakukan kita akan menulis gagasan-gagasan berikut.

 

  • Body of paragraph 1: Health and educational problems of less developed countries and how developed countries help these problems—poverty, sisaster, hunger, desease, unemployement, lack of education, Aids, insufficient of education facilities, international help will solve these problems.
  • Body of paragraph 2: Economic problems of less developed countries and how developed countries help these problems—poor countries sell raw materials to rich countries, financial deficit, borrow significant amount of money form rich countries to improve their economies.

 

Selanjutnya, hasil brainstorming di atas akan kita tuangkan ke dalam paragraph. Perhatikan contoh berikut:

 

Most of the less developed countries live in inhuman condition because of the extreme poverty, disaster, hunger, desease, unemployement and lack of eduction. The devastating consequence of the AIDS epidemic in those countries could be prevented if they receive free drugs and health education. Additionally, the insufficient education facilities could be solved if free educational facilities are made possible. This can only be achieved through international help programs where rich countries donate medicine, send doctors as well as educational facilities to less developed countries.

 

Moreover, most the poor countries depend on selling raw materials to rich nations and buying industrialized products from them. This results in a huge financial deficit. Accordingly, they borrow a significant amount of money from the World Bank in attempts to improve their economies. Regarding this issue, rich countries should make a wise decicion such as forgiving debt of the world’s poorest countries. This action can be initated by such countries grouped in the G8.

 

Keterangan:

Lihat, dalam body of paragraph 1 anda memberi contoh masalah yang dihadapi negara berkembang seperti; poverty, disaster, hunger, desease, unemployement and lack of eduction dan AIDS.Nah, kemudian Anda menambahkan satu masalah lagi (pendidikan) dengan kata hubung additionally.Anda dapat menggunakan kata hubung ‘additionally’ untuk menambahkan gagasan baru dari gagasan sebelumnya.

 

Masuk pada body of paragraph 2, Anda memulai dengan kata hubung ‘moreover’ yang artinya ‘lebih dari itu’. Kata hubung ini mengindikaskan penambahan gagasan dari paragraph sebelumnyaMoreover, most the poor countries depend on selling raw materials to rich nations and buying industrialized products from them. Anda kemudian menyambungya dengan akibat dari negara berkembang memiliki ketergantungan menjual bahan mentah keapda negara maju dan membeli produk dari negara-negara maju tersebut:This results in a huge financial deficit.Kata hubung ‘result in’ sama dengan ‘cause’ yang berarti menyebabkan.Kalimat selanjutnya adalah:Accordingly, they borrow a significant amount of money from the World Bank in attempts to improve their economies. Kata hubung ‘accordingly’ berarti ‘oleh karena itu’.Ini mengindikaskan akibat dari kalimat sebelumnya.Jadi karena negara-negara berkembang menderita defisit keuangan mereka meminjam uang dalam jumlah yang besar dari bank dunia. Paragraph ini ditutup dengan kalimat: Regarding this issue, rich countries should make a wise decicion such as forgiving debt of the world’s poorest countries. This action can be initated by such countries grouped in the G8. Kata ‘regarding this issue’ berarti ‘berkenaan dengan masalah ini’.Kata ini kemudian disusul sebuah solusi bahwa negara-negara maju dapat membantu negara berkembang dengan memaafkan hutang (memutihkan hutang negara berkembang).

 

Langkah 3: menulis conclusion

 

Dalam ‘conclusion’, Anda merangkum kembali pentingnya negara-negara kaya dalam membantu masalah kesehatan, pendidikan dan ekonomi negara-negara miskin. Lihat contoh di bawah ini:

 

In conclusion, leaders of the industrialized countries play an indispensable role in assisting developing nations deal with essential areas such as health, education, and economy. Indeed, their aid is the key to breaking the vicious cycle of death, ignorance and poverty.

 

 

Esai Utuh

Inilah esai utuh yang telah kita tulis di atas:

 

Today’s world has been divided into developing and industrialised countries where the main difference between them is the amount of money that government apply in important sectors such as education, health and commerce. Most of the poorer nations are buried in debts as a result of their unbalanced finances which are reflected in a poorer health care, an unstructured education system and a weak international trade. This vicious cycle will continue indefinitely unless wealthier nations show interest in minimizing the worldwide economic differences, as well as taking more responsibility for assisting unfortunate countries.  Most of the less developed countries live in inhuman condition because of the extreme poverty, disaster, hunger, desease, unemployement and lack of eduction. The devastating consequence of the AIDS epidemic in those countries could be prevented if they receive free drugs and health education. Additionally, the insufficient education facilities could be solved if free educational facilities are made possible. This can only be achieved through international help programs where rich countries donate medicine, send doctors as well as educational facilities to less developed countries.

 

Moreover, most the poor countries depend on selling raw materials to rich nations and buying industrialized products from them. This results in a huge financial deficit. Accordingly, they borrow a significant amount of money from the World Bank in attempts to improve their economies. Regarding this issue, rich countries should make a wise decicion such as forgiving debt of the world’s poorest countries. This action can be initated by such countries grouped in the G8.

 

In conclusion, leaders of the industrialized countries play an indispensable role in assisting developing nations deal with essential areas such as health, education, and economy. Indeed, their aid is they key to breaking the vicious cycle of death, ignorance and poverty.

 

 

 

 

Contoh 3

 

Financial education should be mandatory component of the school program. To what extent do you agree or disagree with this statement?  

 

Langkah 1: Menulis introduction

 

Kata kunci dalam soal di atas adalah ‘financial education’ dan ‘mandatory component’.Untuk itu dalam pembukaan Anda harus memberi konteks dan contoh yang termasuk dalam ‘financial education’.Kemudian dalam ‘thesis statement’ Anda dapat menulis pertanyaan apakah ‘financial education’ itu perlu diintegrasikan dalam komponen pembelajaran di sekolah. Lihat contoh di bawah ini:

 

It is obvious that financial aspects are a major part of daily life, as an adult and even as young individual. Each and every one of us has to make financial decisions concerning recreation, health, education and more. The question is whether to start with financial education as part of school program or postpone it for a later stage in life.

 

Langkah 2: Menulis body of paragraph

 

Dalam ‘thesis statement’, Anda memunculkan pertanyaan apakah ‘financial education’ harus diajarkan sejak sekolah atau ditunda sampai para siswa menjadi dewasa kelak.

 

Dari ‘thesis statement’ ini tampak jelas bahwa dalam bagian ‘body of paragraph’, Anda akan menerangkan keuntungan-keuntungan positif dari integrasi ‘financial education’ di sekolah dan kerugian-kerugiannya. Dua pendapat ini akan Anda bandingkan. Anda akan menimbang sisi manakah yang lebih dominan; apakah sisi keuntungan atau kerugian. Selanjutnya Anda akan menyatakan posisi Anda dalam kesimpulan.

 

Dari ‘brainstorming’ yang Anda lakukan, Anda akan menjelaskan hal-hal berikut:

  • Body of paragraph 1: Benefits of financial education– Abilitiy to value money, understand the economic system and financial news are virtues.
  • Body of paragraph 2: Benefits of financial education– Preventing the lacking of financial analysis ability.
  • Body of paragraph 3: Disatvantages of financial education–Leads to cynical and cold-hearted human being, egoism and materialism.

Marilah kita tuangkan hasil dari ‘brainstorming’ di atas menjadi 3 ‘body of paragraph’.

 

To begin with, being able to understand the value of money, the way the economic system works and interpret financial news and its implications is a virtue. Without this value, an individual, and even a young one, might suffer, to some extent. For example, a child who does not understand the concept of money might find it more difficult to accept choosing only one present out of more possible ones.

 

In addition, many adults are lacking financial analysis capabilities. Quite often, the reason can be a shaky basis or insecurity when it comes to financial terms and concepts. Starting from an early age, building a strong background, can very likely prevent such a situation.

 

However, financial education necessarily involves quantifying and setting prices and value for services and goods. It can be easily turn young people into cynical and cold-hearted human beings. Furthermore, a tendency to self-concentration and egoism might rise when one starts measuring everything from a profit making perspective.

 

Keterangan:

 

Lihat penggunaan ‘signposting’ pada ‘body of paragraph’ di atas. Untuk masuk pada ‘body of paragraph 1’ Anda dapat menggunakan frase ‘to begin with’ yang artinya kurang lebih sama dengan kata ‘firstly’. Kemudian Anda menambahkan gagasan kedua pada ‘body of paragraph 2’ dengan kata hubung ‘in addition’ yang berfungsi untuk menambahkan.Dalam ‘body of paragraph 3’ Anda ingin memunculkan gagasan yang bertentangan dengan gagasan sebelumnya, maka Anda dapat menggunakan kata hubung ‘however’.

 

Langkah 3: menulis conclusion

 

In conclusion, financial education has both pros and conts. In my opinion, the advantages are stronger than the disadvantages, making financial education an advisable component of school program. The disadvantages should be thought of a certain price that young people have to pay due to the characteristics of the world that we live in.

 

Dalam kesimpulan, Anda menyebutkan kembali bahwa ada pro dan kontra perihal ‘financial education’. Anda dapat mengatakannya dengan kalimat, “Financial education has both pro and conts”. Namun Anda berpendapat bahwa ‘financial education’ lebih banyak memiliki keuntungan daripada kerugiannya sehingga layak untuk diajarkan di sekolah. Anda dapat mengungkapkannya dengan kalimat ini; “In my opinion, the advantages are stronger than the disadvantages/the advantages outweighs the disadvantages, making financial education an advisable component of school program”. Kalimat inilah yang menunjukkan posisi Anda dalam essai ini.Jadi penyebutan posisi Anda tidak harus di awal esai.

 

Esai lengkap:

 

Esai secara lengkap dari pembahasan di atas dapat Anda lihat berikut ini:

 

It is obvious that financial aspects are a major part of daily life, as an adult and even as young individual. Each and every one of us has to make financial decisions concerning recreation, health, education and more. The question is whether to start with financial education as part of school program or postpone it for a later stage in life.  To begin with, being able to understand the value of money, the way the economic system works and interpret financial news and its implications is a virtue. Without this value, an individual, and even a young one, might suffer, to some extent. For example, a child who does not understand the concept of money might find it more difficult to accept choosing only one present out of more possible ones.

 

In addition, many adults are lacking financial analysis capabilities. Quite often, the reason can be a shaky basis or insecurity when it comes to financial terms and concepts. Starting from an early age, building a strong background, can very likely prevent such a situation.

 

However, financial education necessarily involves quantifying and setting prices and value for services and goods. It can be easily turn young people into cynical and cold-hearted human beings. Furthermore, a tendency to self-concentration and egoism might rise when one strats measuring everything from a profit making perspective.

 

In conclusion, financial education has both pros and conts. In my opinion, the advantages are stronger than the disadvantages, making financial education an advisable component of school program. The disadvantages should be thought of a certain price that young people have to pay due to the characteristics of the world that we live in.

 

 

Contoh soal 3

 

In some countries children have very strict rules of behavior; in other countries they are allowed to do almost anything they want. To what extent should children have to follow rules?

 

Langkah 1: menulis introduction.

 

Kata kunci dari soal di atas adalah ‘rules for children’ atau peraturan untuk anak-anak.Pertanyaan soal untuk Anda adalah sejauh mana anak-anak harus mengikuti peraturan. Dengan kata lain, sejauh mana peraturan itu bagus untuk anak-anak.

 

Nah, dalam bagian pembukaan, Anda dapat menulis tentang aturan-aturan untuk anak-anak secara umum.Misalnya saja, karena di dalam soal menyebut frase ‘some countries’ maka Anda dapat memberi contoh aturan-aturan untuk anak-anak di negara-negara yang berbeda (contoh di negara India dan negara Barat). Simak contoh pembukaan di bawah ini:

 

The extent to which children have to follow rules is in itself a very complex issue since children across the world grow up in very different cultures. In India, for example, the level of morality is very high and children are to be very submissive to their partents as well as other adults around them. This, however, is not the case for the Western countries of the world where children follow the motto ‘Thou do what thou wilt’ as promoted by celebrities and rock stars. I believe that following strict rules has both advantages and serious drawback.

 

Langkah 2: menulis ‘body of paragraph’

 

Lihat, ‘thesis statement’ dalam pembukaan di atas adalah kalimat yang digarisbawahi, yakni “I believe that following strict rules has both advantages and serious drawback”

 

Oleh karena itu, di dalam ‘body of paragraph’, Anda harus menulis tentang keuntungan dan kerugian dari ‘strict rules’ untuk anak-anak. Untuk membangun ide dan gagasan dalam ‘body of paragraph’, marilah kita lakukan

‘brainstorming’:

 

  • Body of paragraph 1: Strict rules of behavior create responsible and respectful children—stable society and free from vices, get out of hand and become work-shy indolent if not following rules, burden on society.
  • Body of paragraph 2: Forcing children to follow strict rules of behavior does not always yield positive results—children do opposite what has been told, right to exercise free will, destroy individuality.

 

Marilah hasil dari ‘brainstorming’ ini kita tuangkan dalam paragraf-paragraf berikut ini:

 

Firstly, strict rules of behavior create responsible and respectful children who in turn mature into respectful adults. This forms a stable society which is virtually free from vices such as prostitution and drug abuse. Secondly, if children do not follow strict rules of behavior, they will get out of hand and become work-shy indolent. This will then create a burden on society since the government has to find ways to cater for these social ills.

 

However, forcing children to follow strict rules of behavior does not always yield positive results as discussed above; most of the time it backfires and works against society. For example, teenagers are more likely to do the opposite of what they are told to do simply because they want to be independent. Children should also have rights to exercise their free will and develop their own pattern of behavior. Stric rules simply destroy the individuality of childrenif they are imposed on them.

 

 

Keterangan:

Lihat, pada awal ‘body of paragraph 1’ kita dapat menggunakan ‘singposting’ ‘firstly’ kemudian diikuti oleh keuntungan dari ‘strict rules for children’

 

Dalam ‘body of paragraph 2’, kita akan memaparkan kerugian dari ‘strict rules for children’. Ini artinya kita memaparkan ide yang bertentangan dengan ‘body of paragraph 1’. Untuk itu kita dapat menggunakan kata hubung ‘however’ yang artinya ‘akan tetapi’.

 

Langkah 3: menulis kesimpulan

 

Dalam kesimpulan, kita dapat merangkum apa yang kita paparkan dari kedua ‘body of paragraph’ yang telah ditulis. Intinya, ‘strict rules for children’ mengandung baik keuntungan maupun kerugian. Jadi, anak-anak memang harus diberi aturan-aturan, namun tidak dipaksakan dan pada saat yang sama mereka harus diberi kesempatan untuk menumbuhkan karakter mereka. Lihat contoh:

 

In conclusion, it is clear that children should be guided by rules, but these rules should not be imposed on them because as human beings, they need to have room to develop their own traits of character and adopt a behavioral pattern of their own.

 

Esai Utuh

Inilah esai utuh yang telah kita tulis di atas:

 

The extent to which children have to follow rules is in itself a very complex issue since children across the world group up in very different cultures. In India, for example, the level of morality is very high and children are to be very submissive to their partents as well as other adults around them. This, however, is not the case for the Western countries of the world where children follow the motto ‘Thou do what thou wilt’ as promoted by celebrities and rock stars. I believe that following strict rules has both advantages and serious drawback. Firstly, strict rules of behavior create responsible and respectful children who in turn mature into respectful adults. The forms a stable society which is virtually free from vices such as prostitution and drug abuse. Secondly, if children do not follow strict rules of behavior, they will get out of hand and become work-shy indolent. This will then create a burden on society since the government has to find ways to cater for these social ills.

 

However, forcing children to follow strict rules of behavior does not always yield positive results as discussed above; most of the time it backfires and works against society. For example, teenagers are more likely to do the opposite of what they are told to do simply because they what to be independent. Children should also have rights to exercise their free will and develop their own pattern of behavior. Stric rules simply destroy the individuality of childrenif they are imposed on them.

 

In conclusion, it is clear that children should be guided by rules, but these rules should not be imposed on them because as human beings, they need to have room to develop their own traits of character and adopt a behavioral pattern of their own.

 

 

Contoh 4

 

With all the troubles in the world today, money spent on space exploration is as complete waste. The money could be better spent on other things. Do you agree with this opinion?

 

Langkah 1: menulis opening

 

Kata kunci dalam soal di atas adalah ‘space exploration’, dan ‘money spent on other things’.Kemudian Anda ditanya posisi Anda apakah Anda setuju bahwa uang harus digunakan untuk hal-hal lain yang lebih berguna daripada untuk ‘space exploration’ yang tak berguna.

 

Untuk itu, dalam pembukaan tulislah hal-hal yang umum dari ‘space exploration’ .Setelah itu tentukan posisi Anda apakah Anda setuju atau tidak setuju terhadap soal di atas.Contoh:

 

Nation after nation, everyday, every year, celebrates their achievements in space exploration. However, it is now time to question how meaningful these projects are. It is useful to explain why it is questionable and whether there may be more beneficial ways to use the money.

 

Keterangan:

Dalam pembukaan di atas sesuatu yang umum dinyatakan dalam kalimat, “Nation after nation, everyday, every year, celebrates their achievement in space exploration. However, it is now time to question how meaningful these projects are. It is useful to explain why it is questionable and whether there may be more beneficial ways to use the money”

 

 

 

Langkah 2: menulis body of paragraph

 

Tertulis jelas dalam ‘thesis statement’ dalam kalimat yang digarisbawahi dalam pembukaan bahwa Anda akan mendiskusikan mengapa menggunakan uang untuk ekplorasi angkasa dipertanyakan dan apakah ada cara yang lebih bermanfaat untuk menggunakan uang tersebut.

 

Untuk mengembangkan ‘body of paragraph’, Anda selanjutnya dapat melakukan ‘brainstorming’ sebagai berikut:

 

  • Body of paragraph 1: Money should be spent on more important matters– The outer space discovery only serves the minority, people are starving, people even do not now how to prevent AIDS and lung cancer.
  • Body of paragraph 2: Some alternative should be taken into account to find land and energy resources—It is not effective since earth is not yet fully used, new energy resources have not yet been-widely used, threats of plagues have not been dettered. All of these cost money.

 

Inti-inti gagasan dalam paragraph di atas selanjutnya Anda tuangkan dalam body of paragraph sebagai berikut:

 

First, until all urgent and important matters in this globe have been solved, money spent on space exploration is of no meaning. It does not make sense at all to invest million dollars researching and producing foods for space exploration purposes, while other everyday thousands of people are starving. Furthermore, the discovery of outer space only serves a minor group of people if the majority is even not well-educated. People living in rural areas or third world countries do not even know how to prevent common threatening disease like AIDS and lung cancer.

 

Then some may argue that the purpose of space exploration is to discover new lands, new energy resources or to deter potential threat to the globe. Nevertheles, is it effective to do so while other alternatives are available? Land on earth is not yet effectively used. New energy resources (e.g. solar and nuclear energy) have not yet been widely-used. Threats of plagues have not yet been dettered. All these programs need a great deal of money. That is why costly space discovery programs are a waste of money.

 

 

 

Keterangan:

Lihatlah dalam ‘body of paragraph 1’ Anda menggunakan kata hubung ‘furthermore’ untuk menambahkan gagasan yang pertama.Masuk pada ‘body of paragraph 2’ Anda membuka dengan konektor ‘then’.

 

Yang menarik dari ‘body of paragraph 2’ ini, Anda dapat memaparkan pendapat yang berseberangan dengan Anda: Then some may argue that the purpose of space exploration is to discover new lands, new energy resources or to deter potential threat to the globe.Namun setelah itu Anda mendebat pendapat ini dengan mengajukan argumentasi yang lebih masuk akal dengan awalan kata hubung ‘Nevertheles/however’ (akan tetapi): Nevertheles, is it effective to do so while other alternatives are available? Land on earth is not yet effectively used. New energy resources (e.g. solar and nuclear energy) have not yet been widely-used. Threats of plagues have not yet been dettered. All these programs need a great deal of money. That is why costly space discovery programs are a waste of money.

 

Langkah 3: menulis kesimpulan

 

Dalam kesimpulan Anda dapat merangkum kembali gagasan yang telah dituangkan dalam ‘body of paragraph’.Dengan demikian, Ada dua gagasan yang dituangkan dalam ‘body of paragraph’.Pertama, uang dapat digunakan untuk ‘space exploration’ setelah urusan-urusan manusia yang lebih penting dikerjakan.Kedua, tujuan yang jelas dari ‘space exploration’ harus dipertimbangkan dan alternatif-alternatif lain perlu dipikirkan. Rangkuman ini kemudian Anda tuliskan dalam kesimpulan Anda, menjadi:

 

In conclusion, people should only invest in space exploration providing that early-mentioned urgen and important matters have been solved. Also, purpose of space exploration campaign should be studied carefully and other alternatives should be considered before money is wasted.

 

Esai Utuh

Inilah esai utuh yang telah kita tulis di atas:

 

Nation after nation, everyday, every year, celebrates their achievements in space exploration. However, it is now time to question how meaningful these projects are. It is useful to explain why it is questionable and whether there may be more beneficial ways to use the money. First, until all urgent and important matters in this globe have been solved, money spent on space exploration is of no meaning. It does not make sense at all to invest million dollars researching and producing foods for space exploration purposes, while other everyday thousands of people are starving. Furthermore, the discovery of outer space only serves a minor group of people if the majority is even not well-educated. People living in rural areas or third world countries do not even know how to prevent common threatening disease like AIDS and lung cancer.

 

Then some may argue that the purpose of space exploration is to discover new lands, new energy resources or to deter potential threat to the globe. Nevertheles, is it effective to do so while other alternatives are available? Land on earth is not yet effectively used. New energy resources (e.g. solar and nuclear energy) have not yet been widely-used. Threats of plagues have not yet been dettered. All these programs need a great deal of money. That is why costly space discovery programs are a waste of money.

 

In conclusion, people should only invest in space exploration providing that early-mentioned urgen and important matters have been solved. Also, purpose of space exploration campaign should be studied carefully and other alternatives should be considered before money is wasted.

 

 

 

Contoh soal 5

 

Even though globalization affects the world’s economies in a positive way, its negative sides should not be forgotten. Discuss.

 

Strategi 2: Menulis pembukaan

 

Kata kunci dalam soal di atas adalah ‘globalization’, ‘effects of globalization on economies’ dan ‘negative side of globalization’. Nah, maka dalam pembukaan Anda dapat menulis hal-hal yang umum seputar globalisasi dan efek positifnya dalam ekonomi.Dalam ‘thesis statement’ Anda dapat mengatakan bahwa ada kelompok yang berpendapat bahwa globalisasi membawa manfaat; ada juga yang berpendapat bahwa globalisasi membawa efek negatif. Lihatlah contoh pembukaan di bawah ini:

 

In the present age, globalization is playing increasingly important role in our lives. But in the meantime whether it is blessing or a curse has sparked much debate. Some people argue the globalization has fundamentally beneficial influence on our lives while many other contend that it has detrimental effects as well.

 

Langkah 2: menulis body of paragraph   

 

Kalimat yang digarisbawahi di atas adalah ‘thesis statement’.‘Thesis statement’ tersebut mengindikasikan bahwa pada ‘body of paragraph’, Anda akan berbicara masalah efek negatif dan efek positif globalisasi.

 

Dari ‘brainstorming’, maka gagasan dalam ‘body of paragraph’ dapat Anda susun sebagai berikut:

  • Body of paragraph 1: Positive effects of globalization on economy: corporations become internationalized. Contribution to local technology and employment. New equipment and management skills. Buy products from other countries.
  • Body of paragraph 2: Globalization gives bad effects to young people. Reliance on other products and culture:Nike T-shirt, apple Ipod, KFC, Adidas, westernization and Americanization.

 

Simaklah pengembangan ‘body of paragraph’ dari ‘brainstorming’ di atas berikut ini:

 

To begin with, it is globalization that impelled many corporations to become an international group, thereby making contribution to local technology and employment. Specifically, when a multinational group establishes a factory in a developing country, the new equipment, the new management skill and the job vacancies are all in the best interest of local society. Moreover, people worldwide can know each other better through globalization.As a result,it is easy to see that people can buy products from other countries easily.

 

Admitedly, however, profit driven globalization severly affected the young people. Today, in the metropolises in different countries, it is very common sight that teenagers are wearing Nike T-shirt and Adidas footwear, playing Hi-pop music with Apple ipod and having KFC. The local culture that took thousand years is uprooted because of the alien culture from other countries. The terms ‘westernatization’ and ‘americanizatin’ are reffered by many people as a form of the cultural hegemony of the more developed countries imposed on the less developed countries.

 

Keterangan:

‘Body of paragraph’ 1 dibuka dengan ‘singposting’ ‘to begin with’. ‘To begin with’ hampir sama maknanya dengan ‘firstly’. Namun penggunaan ‘to begin with’ akan lebih variatif daripada menggunakan ‘firstly’. Sebagaimana ‘brainstorming’ yang telah kita buat, pada awal pembukaan Anda menerangkan masalah efek positif globalisasi pada bidang ekonomi: To begin with, it is globalization that impelled many corporations to become an international group, thereby making contribution to local technology and employment. Jadi globalisasi mendorong perusahaan menjadi ‘go international’ sehingga berkontribusi kepada teknologi dan tenaga kerja lokal. Selanjutnya Anda menunjukkan contoh lebih lanjut dengan kata hubung ‘specifically’ :Specifically, when a multinational group establishes a factory in a developing country, the new equipment, the new management skill and the job vacancies are all in the best interest of local society.Jadi, perusahaan yang menginternasional memungkinkan perusahaan multinasional membangun pabrik-pabrik di negara berkembang. Kondisi ini memungkinkan transfer peralatan, manajemen dari negara maju ke negara berkembang. Masyarakatpun akan mendapatkan kesempatan kerja baru. Anda kemudian dapat menambah gagasan ini dengan gagasan selanjutnya.Untuk menambah gagasan Anda dapat menggunakan kata hubung ‘moreover’(lebih-lebih): Moreover, people worldwide can know each other better through globalization.Artinya; lebih dari itu, manusia diseluruh dunia mengetahui satu sama lain melalui globalisasi. Nah ini membawa akibat selanjutnya yang dapat Anda tulis dengan kata hubung ‘as a result’  (akibatnya): As a result,it is easy to see that people can buy products from other countries easily

 

Dalam ‘body of paragraph 2’, Anda mengungkap akibat-akibat negatif dari globaliasi. Anda membukanya dengan signposting ‘Admitedly however’ (akan tetapi).Selanjutnya Anda menyebut berbagai contoh akibat negatif dari globalisasi.

 

Langkah 3: menulis kesimpulan

 

Dalam bagian kesimpulan, Anda dapat menyimpulkan rangkuman ide-ide pokok dalam ‘body of paragraph’. Gagasan pokoknya adalah bahwa globalisasi membawa baik efek positif maupun efek negatif, seperti contoh di bawah ini:

 

In summary, I would concede that globalization do come with some adverse effects. Despite that the benefits created by it far outweigh the disadvantages. Overall, I am convinced that we should further promote globalization and meanwhile the local governments should take some measures to combat the cultural colonization and develop their own culture.

 

Keterangan:

Untuk mengawali bagian ‘conclusion’, Anda dapat membuka dengan kata ‘in summary’. Kalimat ‘I would concede’ sama dengan ‘I would conclude’ yang berarti ‘Saya akan menyimpulkan’. Lengkapnya Anda menulis, In summary, I would concede that globalization do come with some adverse effects (Singkatnya, saya menyimpulkan bahwa globalisasi datang dengan berbagai akibat).Selanjutnya Anda dapat menentukan posisi Anda bahwa akibat positif lebih banyak daripada akibat negatif dari globalisasi. Anda dapat mulai dengan kata hubung ‘despite that’ (meskipun demikian): Despite that the benefits created by it far outweigh the disadvantages (Meskipun demikian, keuntungan dari globalisasi melebihi kerugian yang disebabkan globalisasi).Setelah itu Anda juga dapat menambahkan rekomendasi: Overall, I am convinced that we should further promote globalization and meanwhile the local governments should take some measures to anticipate the cultural colonization and develop their own culture.Lihat, Anda dapat memulai dengan kata ‘overall’ (secara keseluruhan) diteruskan dengan rekomendasi Anda dalam menghadapi globalisasi.Dalam contoh di atas Anda mengajak pembaca untuk mempromosikan globalisasi sementara pemerintah lokal harus mengambil langkah-langkah untuk mengantisipasi kolonisasi budaya dan membangun budaya mereka sendiri.

 

Esai Utuh

 

Inilah esai utuh yang telah kita tulis di atas:

 

In the present age, globalization is playing increasingly important role in our lives. But in the meantime whether it is blessing or a curse has sparked much debate. Some people argue the globalization has fundamentally beneficial influence on our lives while many other contend that it has detrimental effects as well. To begin with, it is globalization that impelled many corporations to become an international group, thereby making contribution to local technology and employment. Specifically, when a multinational group establishes a factory in a developing country, the new equipment, the new management skill and the job vacancies are all in the best interest of local society. Moreover, people worldwide can know each other better through globalization.As a result,it is easy to see that people can buy products from other countries easily. 

 

Admitedly, however, profit driven globalization severly affected the young people. Today, in the metropolises in different countries, it is very common sight that teenagers are wearing Nike T-shirt and Adidas footwear, playing Hi-pop music with Apple ipod and having KFC. The local culture that took thousand years is uprooted because of the alien culture from other countries. The terms ‘westernatization’ and ‘americanizatin’ are reffered by many people as a form of the cultural hegemony of the more developed countries imposed on the less developed countries.

 

In summary, I would concede that globalization do come with some adverse effects. Despite that the benefits created by it far outweigh the disadvantages. Overall, I am convinced that we should further promote globalization and meanwhile the local governments should take some measures to combat the cultural colonization and develop their own culture.

 

Contoh soal 6

 

People today move to new cities or new countries more than ever before. What challenges do they experience? What strategies are there to meet these challenges?

 

Langkah 1: menulis pembukaan

 

Kata kunci dari soal di atas adalah ‘the moving of people to new cities or countries’, ‘challenges’, ‘strategies to meet these challenges’. Dari kata-kata kunci ini marilah kita buat pembukaan. Pertama, Anda dapat menulis tentang kemudahan orang untuk berpindah dari desa ke kota karena teknologi transportasi dan komunikasi. Dalam ‘thesis statement’, Anda dapat mengungkapkan bahwa perpindahan tersebut melahirkan masalah dan tantangan untuk mengatasinya.Marilah kita coba menulis pembukaannya.

 

People today are clearly more mobile than in the past. This is largerly due to modern technology which makes travelling and communicating easier and quicker. Why do people move? Often people re-locate to large cities for employement; some people study in English-speaking countries. Whatever the reason, moving away from home may create many challenges, both practical and social.

 

Langkah 2: menulis body of paragraph

 

Simaklah, dalam pembukaan di atas ‘thesis statement’ kita (kalimat yang bergaris bawah) mengatakan bahwa apapun alasannya, perpindahan akan menyebabkan banyak tantangan baik tantangan praktis maupun tantangan sosial. Maka dalam ‘body of paragraph’, Anda harus membahas tantangan praktis dan sosial berikut solusinya.

 

Marilah kita lakukan brainstorming dulu untuk tiap-tiap paragraph dalam body of paragraph:

 

  • Body of paragraph 1: Practical problems: finding accommodation, managing finances and shopping, understanding the public transport system. Solution: prepare in advance, get advice, travel guides, staying in homestay.
  • Body of paragraph 2: Social and emotional problems: loneliness, language, starting a new job. Solutions: Joining association or organization, sports or hobbies club, meet people and make friends.

 

Dari brainstorming di atas, marilah kita coba menuangkan dalam dua paragraf dari ‘body of paragraph’ berikut ini:

 

Firstly there are practical problems such as finding accommodation, managing finances, shopping and so on. These might present challenges to someone who has not lived independently before. In addition, adapting to a new city environment includes understanding the public transport system, possible in another language, while trying not to get lost. The best strategy for minimizing such anxious moments is to prepare in advance as much as possible. Thus it might be helpful to get advice from someone familiar with the area. There arealso publications such as travel guides to overseas countries which give tips and useful accommodation with someone who is familiar with the city, or staying in a ‘homestay’ on arrival in a new country, may overcome many of these problems. Homestay families or ‘sharemates’ will provide company and be able to explain aspects of the new city of culture that may seem strange at first.

 

There are also social and emotional issues to deal with, like loneliness or problems with the language. Moreover, starting a new job or course may be stressful at first. Generally, however, there are organizations such as overseas students’ associations in an educational institution, or other sports or hobby clubs where it is  possible to meet people and make friends.

 

Keterangan:

Kita dapat membuka kalimat dalam ‘body of paragraph 1’ dengan ‘signposting’ ‘firstly’ diteruskan dengan menyebutkan ‘practical problem’, yakni; ‘finding accommodation’, ‘managing finances’, ‘shopping’ and ‘so on’. Kemudian Anda menambahkan ‘practical problem’ yang lain dengan kata hubung ‘in addition’. Setelah itu, Anda memberikan berbagai strategi untuk mengatasi masalah-masalah praktis yang telah Anda sebutkan. Anda juga menyebutkan problem yang lain dengan kata hubung ‘moreover’ (lebih dari itu).

 

Pada body of paragraph 2, kita dapat menggunakan signposting, ‘also’. Ini berarti bahwa selain ‘practical problems’, perpindahan rumah juga memunculkan problem sosial dan emosional.Namun demikian (however) Anda kemudian mengatakan bahwa problem ini dapat diatasi.

 

Langkah 3: menulis conclusion

 

Dalam ‘conclusion’ kita menyimpulkan bahwa walaupun ada masalah-masalah ketika orang meninggalkan rumah ke kota atau negara baru, mereka dapat mengatasi masalah tersebut dengan membuat rencana  yang baik.

 

In conclusion, although there are many challenges when leaving home for a new city or country, planning in advance can transform an ordeal into an adventure.

 

Esai Utuh

 

Inilah esai utuh yang telah kita tulis di atas:

People today are clearly more mobile than in the past. This is largerly due to modern technology which makes travelling and communicating easier and quicker. Why do people move? Often people re-locate to large cities for employement; some people study in English-speaking countries. Whatever the reason, moving away from home may create many challenges, both practical and social. Firstly there are practical problems such as finding accommodation, managing finances, shopping and so on. These might present challenges to someone who has not lived independently before. In addition, adapting to a new city environment includes understanding the public transport system, possible in another language, while trying not to get lost. The best strategy for minimizing such anxious moments is to prepare in advance as much as possible. Thus it might be helpful to get advice from someone familiar with the area. There are also publications such as travel guides to overseas countries which give tips and useful accommodation with someone who is familiar with the city, or staying in a ‘homestay’ on arrival in a new country, may overcome many of these problems. Homestay families or ‘sharemates’ will provide company and be able to explain aspects of htenew city of culture that may seem strange at first.

 

There are also social and emotional issues to deal with, like loneliness or problems with the language. Moreover, starting a new job or course may be stressful at first. Generally, however, there are organizations such as overseas stusdents’ associations in an educational institution, or other sports or hobby clubs where it is possible to meet people and make friends.

 

In conclusion, although there are many challenges when leaving home for a new city or country, planning in advance can transform an ordeal into an adventure.   

 

 

Contoh soal 7

Sports which depend on violence for their entertainment, such as boxing and wrestling, have no place in a civilized society and should be banned. To what extent would you support or reject this idea?

 

Langkah 1: menulis pembukaan

 

Frase kunci dari soal di atas adalah ‘the banning of boxing and wrestling’ (pencekalan olahraga tinju dan gulat) karena dinilai kejam dalam masyarakat yang beradab (civilized society).

 

Nah, dalam pembukaan kita harus menulis hal-hal yang umum berkenaan dengan olahraga keras. Setelah itu, dalam ‘thesis statement’ kita dapat menulis bahwa pelarangan olahraga ini akan menjadi perdebatan. Lihat contoh pembukaan di bawah ini.

 

Many sports, like rugby and football, involve violent contact between players and often lead to injury. Other sports, boxing and wrestling in particular, have the deliberate intention of hurting and opponent. Whether this is acceptable in modern society when at all other times we attempt to train people not to be aggressive and not to deliberately hurt other people is a debatable point.

 

Langkah 2: menulis body of paragraph

 

‘Thesis statement’ yang digarisbawahi pada ‘introduction’ di atas mengindikasikan bahwa Anda akan menulis perdebatan seputar pro dan kontra mengenai pencekalan olahraga tinju dan gulat.

 

Untuk itu marilah kita lakukan brainstorming.

  • Body of paragraph 1: Proponents of the banning of boxing and wrestling: boxing and wrestling are violence. Disturbing. Savage culture.
  • Body of paragraph 2: Opponents of the banning of boxing and wrestling: reduce illegal violence in society. Train young people to be better members of society. Not hurt because of medical facilities. Better than street fighting.

 

Selanjutnya, gagasan dalam brainstorming kita tuliskan dalam masing-masing ‘body of paragraph’ berikut ini:

 

To begin with, the argument against sports like boxing come from a few number of people who might find violence, even in a controlled and institutionalized form, highly disturbing. Their line of reasoning appears to be that violence violence in sports characterized the savage society in the ancient era of Rome. In order to be civilized society they should reject any form of violence including boxing and wrestling. Hence,the opponents of the boxing and wrestling sports argue that such sports should be prohibited. Permitting society to see boxing and sports will likely to encourage them to copy and do acts of violence in society.

 

However, realists point out that cruelty is inherent in society and banning boxing will not alter this. On the contrary, institutionalizing and controlling violence in boxing clubs can help change this. Boys, who would otherwise be part of street gangs outside the law, can be taught to be part of a group and direct their energies at activities which are inside the law. In this environment they can be trained to be better member of society. Organised boxing matches follow elaborate rules and medical facilities are always on hand so that no one should be seriously hurt. How much better this is than uncontrolled street fighting outside the law.

 

Keterangan:

Untuk memulai body of paragraph, singposting ‘to begin with’ digunakan dalam paragraph di atas, dilanjutkan dengan pendapat dari orang-orang yang setuju akan pencekalan tinju dan gulat.

 

Pada ‘body paragraph 2’, kata hubung ‘however’ digunakan untuk mengkontraskan pendapat dari orang-orang yang tidak setuju dengan pencekalan olah raga tinju dan gulat.

 

Langkah 3: menulis kesimpulan

 

Untuk membuat kesimpulan Anda dapat menyebutkan posisi Anda kembali bahwa pencekalan olah raga tinju dan gulat tidaklah membawa manfaat bahkan membawa kerugian. Anda juga mengatakan bahwa mencekal olah raga itu tidak akan mengurangi kekerasan dalam masyarakat. Pada akhir kesimpulan, Anda dapat membuat prediksi bahwa jika kita mencekal olah raga tinju dan gulat, perkelahian ilegal jalanan akan dikuasai para kaum kriminal dan itu akan merugikan kita semua. Marilah kita tuangkan dalam kesimpulan berikut:

 

To sum up, it seems to me that there is little to be gained and much to be lost by banning sports such as boxing and wrestling. Prohibiting them will not stop violence in society but it will drive organized fighting outside the law into the hands of criminals. We should all lose if that occurred.

 

Keterangan:

‘Kata ‘to sum up’ adalah variasi dari kata ‘in conclusion’ yang dapat Anda gunakan untuk membuka bagian kesimpulan dalam esai Anda.

 

Esai Utuh:

 

Inilah esai utuh yang telah kita tulis di atas:

Many sports, like rugby and football, involve violent contact between players and often lead to injury. Other sports, boxing and wrestling in particular, have the deliberate intention of hurting and opponent. Whether this is acceptable in modern society when at all other times we attempt to train people not to be aggressive and not to deliberately hurt other people is a debatable point. To begin with, the argument against sports like boxing come from a few number of people who might find violence, even in a controlled and institutionalized form, highly disturbing. Their line of reasoning appears to be that violence violence in sports characterized the savage society in the ancient era of Rome. In order to be civilized society they should reject any form of violence including boxing and wrestling. Hence, the opponents of the boxing and wrestling sports argue that such sports should be prohibited. Permitting society to see boxing and sports will likely to encourage them to copy and do acts of violence in society.

 

However, realists point out that cruelty is inherent in society and banning boxing will not alter this. On the contrary, institutionalizing and controlling violence in boxing clubs can help change this. Boys, who would otherwise be part of street gangs outside the law, can be taught to be part of a group and direct their energies at activities which are inside the law. In this environment they can be trained to be better member of society. Organised boxing matches follow elaborate rules and medical facilities are always on hand so that no one should be seriously hurt. How much better this is than uncontrolled street fighting outside the law.

 

To sum up, it seems to me that there is little to be gained and much to be lost by banning sports such as boxing and wrestling. Prohibiting them will not stop violence in society but it will drive organized fighting outside the law into the hands of criminals. We should all lose if that occurred.

 

Contoh soal 8

E-mail has had a huge impact on professional and social communication, but this impact has been negative as well as positive. Do the advantages of using e-mail outweigh the advantages?

 

Langkah 1: menulis pembukaan

 

Di dalam pembukaan, Anda dapat membahas eksistensi email secara umum. Contohnya, email telah mengubah cara kita berkomunikasi baik secara profesional maupun secara sosial. Dalam ‘thesis statement’ Anda dapatmengungkapkan bahwa walaupun tidak semua efek dari inovasi teknologi itu positif, email membawa berbagai kemanfaatan. Lihat contoh berikut:

 

It is certainly true that the use of e-mail has greatly changed the way we communicate with each other professionally as well as socially. Although not all the effects of this innovation has been positive, there are certaintly some advantages.

 

Langkah 2: menulis ‘body of paragraph’

 

Body of paragraph dikembangkan dari ‘thesis statement’.‘Thesis statement’ di atas mengindikasikan bahwa kita harus menulis efek negatif dari email dulu, setelah itu efek positifnya. Nah, efek negatif dapat diletakkan dalam ‘body of paragraph 1’ sedangkan efek positif dapat dituliskan dalam ‘body of paragraph 2.

 

Untuk membangun ide-ide, marilah kita lakukan ‘brainstorming’.

  • Body of paragraph 1: Email causes stress—Receive more message, increase pressure, spend longer time on computers, viruses.
  • Body of paragraph 2: Benefits of email—fast and easy to communicate, get in touch and send information cheaply and quickly, good reproduction, widely used.

 

Hasil dari ‘brainstorming’ di atas kemudian kita tuangkan dalam dua ‘body of paragraph’ berikut ini:

 

A common criticism of e-mail in the workplace is that it causes extra work and stress. This is because employees receive more messages than they can answer every day and since e-mail writers expect a quick response, this further increases pressure on employees. Other objections to e-mail for both social and professional users include the way it encourages people to spend even longer at their computers and also danger of incoming messages allowing viruses into your computer system.

 

In spite of these negative effects, however, e-mail has brought important benefits as well. One such advantage of using e-mail is that it is a fast and easy way to communicate with family, friends and work colleagues wherever they are in the world. It not only allows people to stay in touch with each other, but it also allows them to send all kinds of information very quickly, cheaply and with a very good quality of reproduction. This is a huge advance on earlier communication systems, and the low cost of e-mail means it is very widely used.

 

 

Keterangan:

‘Body of paragraph 1’ di atas menunjukkan efek buruk dari email Sebaliknya ‘body of paragraph 2’ mengungkapkan efek positif dari email. Untuk melawankan dua gagasan ini, Anda dapat menggunakan kata hubung ‘in spite of these negative effects, however’

 

Langkah 3: menulis kesimpulan

 

Di dalam kesimpulan, Anda dapat merangkum bahwa menggunakan email ada kebaikan dan ada keburukannya.Namun Anda kemudian memperkuat posisi Anda bahwa kebaikannya lebih banyak daripada keburukannya. Lihat contoh berikut:

 

To sum up, while there are some obvious drawbacks to using e-mail, this fast and user-friendly technology has greatly improved our ability to communicate both professionally and socially. Therefore, I think e-mail has brought us many more benefits than disadvantages.

 

Keterangan:

Untuk membuat kesimpulan, Anda dapat mengawali dengan ‘to sum up’ yang maknanya sama dengan kata ‘in conclusion’.

 

Esai Utuh

 

Inilah esai utuh yang telah kita tulis di atas:

 

It is certainly true that the use of e-mail has greatly changed the way we communicate with each other professionally as well as socially. Although not all the effects of this innovation has been positive, there are certaintly some advantages.  A common criticism of e-mail in the workplace is that it causes extra work and stress. This is because employees receive more messages than they can answer every day and since e-mail writers expect a quick response, this further increases pressure on employees. Other objections to e-mail for both social and professional users include the way it encourages people to spend even longer at their computers and also danger of incoming messages allowing viruses into your computer system.

 

In spite of these negative effects, however, e-mail has brought important benefits as well. Ones such advantage of using e-mail is that is is a fast and easy way to communicate with family, friends and work colleagues wherever they are in the world. It not only allows people to stay in touch with each other, but it also allows them to send all kinds of information very quickly, cheaply and with a very good quality of reproduction. This is a huge advance on earlier communication systems, and the low cost of e-mail means it is very widely used.

 

To sum up, while there are some obvious drawbacks to using e-mail, this fast and user-friendly technology has greatly improved our ability to communicate both professionally and socially. Therefore, I think e-mail has brought us many more benefits than disadvantages.

 

Contoh soal 9

 

In the modern world, the image is becoming a more powerful way of communicating than the written and spokenlanguage. To what extent do you agree or disagree?

 

Langkah 1: menulis pembukaan

 

Kata kunci dari soal di atas adalah tentang ‘image’ atau gambar yang sekarang menjadi cara mengkomunikasikan gagasan. Menurut soal ini penggunaan ‘gambar’ adalah lebih kuat daripada penggunaan kata-kata.

 

Untuk menulis pembukaan, Anda perlu membahas hal-hal umum seputar penggunaan gambar dalam menyampaikan komunikasi kepada publik.Anda selanjutnya dapat menentukan ‘thesis statement’ atau posisi Anda.Misalnya, Anda mengungkapkan persetujuan Anda bahwa gambar adalah sarana komunikasi yang kuat untuk mempengaruhi, memberi informasi dan menghibur. Marilah gagasan-gagasan ini kita tuangkan dalam pembukaan:

 

In today’s world, images in the form of photographs, films and pictures are used everywhere as a means of communicating with the public. I certaintly agree that such images have become a very powerful means of communication and they are used in many different sectors to influence, inform and entertain the public.

Langkah 2: menulis ‘body of paragraph

 

Lihat, sesuai dengan ‘thesis statement’ (kalimat yang di garisbawahi), dalam ‘body of speech’ Anda akan mengakui tentang kekuatan gambar dalam mempengaruhi, memberi informasi dan memberi hiburan kepada masyarakat. Ini dapat Anda tuliskan dalam ‘body of paragraph 1’.

 

Walaupun Anda mengakui bahwa gambar memiliki kekuatan, Anda berpendapat bahwa gambar tidak lebih kuat dari kata-kata.Jika Anda berpikir seperti ini, Anda dapat menuliskannya dalam ‘body of paragraph 2’.

 

Selanjutnya, marilah kita lakukan ‘brainstorming’ untuk menggali gagasan lebih detail:

  • Body of paragraph 1: The use of images in media–to give information, to influence, to be used in entertainment industry, to send photo in mobile phones.
  • Body of paragraph 2: Images is not more powerful than written or spoken language—rarely used alone, written language accompanies images, misleading is used alone.

 

Marilah gagasan-gagasan hasil ‘brainstorming’ kita tuangkan dalam ‘body of paragraph’ sebagai berikut:

 

The media, for example, use images to give detailed information and immediate impact to their news coverage. Similarly, advertising industries constantly use images to influence, persuade and make people identify with what they see. The powerful attraction of images is also evident in the entertainment industry and even in the growth in mobile phones that can send photos as part of a regular personal ‘conversation’.

 

However, while it is evident that the image has certaintly become a very powerful way of communicating, that is not to say that it has become more powerful than either the written or spoken world. Images can be interpreted in a range of different ways, and because of this they are rarely used alone. Caption, headlines and written explanation or spoken commentaries almost always accompany the use of images, whether they are used in advertising or the media. Used alone, the message of a picture can be notoriously misleading, and is less effective as a result.

 

 

Langkah 3: menulis kesimpulan

 

Dalam bagian kesimpulan, Anda dapat menyatakan posisi Anda bahwa Anda setuju sebagian terhadap peryataan dalam soal. Dan akhirnya, Anda dapat mengungkap kembali bahwa gambar adalah alat yang kuat untuk berkomunikasi, namun akan lebih efektif jika dibarengi dengan komunikasi tulis dan lisan. Mari kita tuangkan dalam kesimpulan:

 

In conclusion, therefore, I only partly agree with the statement. While it is true that images can send very powerful messages, they are only really effective as means of communication when used together with either the written or spoken word.

 

Esai Utuh

 

Inilah esai utuh yang telah kita tulis di atas:

 

In today’s world, images in the form of photographs, films and pictures are used everywhere as a means of communicating with the public. I certaintly agree that such images have become a very powerful means of communication and they are used in many different sectors to influence, inform and entertain the public.  The media, for example, use images to give detailed information and immediate impact to their news coverage. Similarly, advertising industries constantly use images to influence, persuade and make people identify with what they see. The powerful attraction of images is also evident in the entertainment industry and even in the growth in mobile phones that can send photos as part of a regular personal ‘conversation’.

 

However, while it is evident that the image has certaintly become a very powerful way of communicating, that is not to say that it has become more powerful than either the written or spoken world. Images can be interpreted in a range of different ways, and because of this they are rarely used alone. Caption, headlines and written explanation or spoken commentaries almost always accompany the use of images, whether they are used in advertising or the media. Used alone, the message of a picture can be notoriously misleading, and is less effective as a result.

 

In conclusion, therefore, I only partly agree with the statement. While it is true that images can send very powerful messages, they are only really effective as means of communication when used together with either the written or spoken word.

 

 

Contohsoal 10

 

University lecturers are now able to put their lectures on the internet for students to read and so the importance of attending face to face lectures has been reduced. Do you believe the use of the internet in formal education is a good idea? What future effects will the internet have on academic study?

 

Langkah 1: menulis pembukaan

 

Kata kunci dari soal di atas adalah ‘lecturers on the internet’ dan ‘internet on education’.Anda ditanya apakah penggunaan internet di dalam dunia pendidikan adalah ide yang bagus. Anda juga ditanya apakah pengaruh internet dalam dunia pendidikan pada masa depan.

 

Untuk membuka paragraf pembukaan, Anda dapat mulai dengan mengatakan bahwa teknologi internet sudah mengubah banyak aspek dari kehidupan kita termasuk proses belajar dan mengajar. Lalu Anda dapat membuat ‘thesis statement’, misalnya, bahwa penggunaan internet dalam pendidikan akan lebih banyak membawa kerugian daripada keuntungan. Mari gagasan-gagasan ini kita tuangkan dalam bagian pembukaan sebagai berikut:

 

Over the past few years, computer technology has started to change many aspects of our lives. One of these is our approach to teaching and learning. Many people believe that the internet will greatly enhance students’ live but in my opinion, the costs will outweigh the benefits.

Langkah 2: menulis ‘body of paragraph’

 

‘Thesis statement’ yang telah kita buat di atas mengatakan bahwa banyak orang yakin internet akan meningkatkan kehidupan para siswa, namun menurut Anda kerugiannya akan lebih besar dari keuntungannya.Maka dalam ‘body of paragraph 1’ dan ‘body of paragraph 2’ Anda dapat mengungkapkan kerugian-kerugian dari internet dalam dunia pendidikan.

 

Untuk menggali gagasan, marilah kita lakukan brainstorming sebagai berikut:

  • Body of paragraph 1: The level of the lecturers/students contacts may be reduced–teaching and learning from home, less consultation, students’ work suffer.
  • Body of paragraph 2: Disatvantages of students’ health—much reading and writing, no exercise, less opportunity to socialize, suffered phsysically and mentally.

 

Gagasan-gagasan hasil brainstorming ini  selanjutnya kita tuangkan dalam ‘body of paragraph’ berikut ini:

 

One future effect of the internet on academic study is that the level of lecturer/student contact what we are used to may be reduced. This might happen simply because students do not need to spend so much time on the university campus. The same may be true of lecturers. If they they are able to put their lectures on the internet, they may choose to do this from home and so be less available for consultation. In my view this would be a great disadvantage. In many countries, tutors usually stress the importance of regular, informal meetings and students’ work could suffer if efforts are not made to maintain these.

 

Apart from the negative impact that the internet may have on student/lecturer relationships, I think we also have to consider the disadvantages to student health. Studying is by nature a very sedentary activity involving long hours reading books and writing assignments. In addition, these activities are usually done alone. Going to campus offers students a change of scenery, a bit of exercise, and an opportunity to meet and socialize with other students.If it is no longer necessary to leave home because lectures are made available on the internet, then students may suffer physically and mentally because of this change.

 

Keterangan:

Perhatikan dalam ‘body of paragraph’, Anda dapat menggunakan frase ‘one future effect of internet on academic study is…’. Dalam ‘body of paragraph 2’ Anda dapat memberi satu lagi contoh dari akibat negatif dari penggunaan internet dalam dunia pendidikan dengan frase, ‘apart from the negative impact that the internet may have on student/lecturer relationships…’.

 

 

 

 

Langkah 3: menulis kesimpulan

 

Dalam bagian kesimpulan, kita dapat menyebut bahwa kita dapat menghargai penggunaan internet dalam pendidikan.Selanjutnya Anda juga dapat menyebutkan kembali posisi Anda bahwa Anda tidak setuju jika internet adalah sarana terbaik dalam menyampaikan informasi di dunia pendidikan. Lihat:

 

In conclusion, while I can appreciate that the internet will be a valuable source of information for students, I cannot agree that it is the best means of transmitting this information and I think we have to guard against developing an unhealthy dependence on it.

 

Esai Utuh

 

Inilah esai utuh yang telah kita tulis di atas:

 

Over the past few years, computer technology has started to change many aspects of our lives. One of these is our approach to teaching and learning. Many people believe that the internet will greatly enhance students’ live but in my opinion, the costs will outweigh the benefits.

 

One future effect of the internet on academic study is that the level of lecturer/student contact what we are used to may be reduced. This might happen simply because students do not need to spend so much time on the university campus. The same may be true of lecturers. If they they are able to put their lectures on the internet, they may choose to do this from home and so be less available for consultation. In may view this would be a great disadvantage. In many countries, tutors usually stress the importance of regular, informal meetings and students’ work could suffer if efforts are not made to maintain these.

 

Apart from the negative impact that the internet may have on student/lecturer relationships, I think we also have to consider the disadvantages to student health. Studying is by nature a very sedentary activity involving long hours reading books and writing assignments. In addition, these activities are usually done alone. Going to campus offers students a change of scenery, a bit of exercise, and an opportunity to meet and socialize with other students.If it is no longer necessary to leave home because lectures are made available on the internet, then students may suffer physically and mentally because of this change.

 

In conclusion, while I can appreciate that the internet will be a valuable source of information for students, I cannot agree that it is the best means of transmitting this information and I think we have to guard against developing an unhealthy dependence on it.

 

 

Contoh soal 11

 

Some employers reward members of staff for their exceptional contribution to the company by giving them extra money. This practice can act as an incentive for some but may also have negative impact on others. To what extent is this style of management effective? Are there better ways of encouraging employees to work hard?

 

Langkah 1: menulis pembukaan

 

Soal di atas menyatakan bahwa pengusaha menggunakan uang untuk memberi penghargaan kepada pegawai atas kontribusi mereka terhadap perusahaan.Penghargaan ini dapat dianggap sebagai insentif namun berpotensi membawa akibat negatif.Kemudian Anda ditanya sejauh mana model manajemen ini efektif dan apakah ada alternatif yang lebih bagus untuk mendorong para karyawan.

 

Nah, kata kunci dari soal di atas adalah ‘extra money’ atau ‘incentive’ yang digunakan untuk memberi penghargaan dan dorongan kepada karyawan.

 

Baiklah, kita dapat membuka kalimat ini dengan hal-hal yang umum seputar usaha dari para pengusaha dalam memberi penghargaan dan semangat kepada para pekerjanya.Mari kita coba tulis ide ini:

 

In time of high unemployement, employers need do very little to encourage the staff to work hard. However, when job vacancies are scarce, they have to find effective ways of rewarding their staff in order to stop them from going elsewhere.

 

Langkah 2: menulis ‘body of paragraph’

 

Silakan Anda simak, ‘thesis statement’ dalam pembukaan yang digarisbawahi di atas mengindikasikan bahwa dalam ‘body of paragraph’ Anda harus menulis tentang berbagai cara yang efektif untuk memberi penghargaan kepada para karyawan. Selanjutnya Andapun dapat menganalisa cara-cara tersebut dari sisi baik dan buruknya.

 

Marilah kita lakukan ‘brainstorming’ dulu untuk penggalian ide:

 

  • Body of paragraph 1: One way is to give extra money: real estate agents give simple commission and weaknesses of this strategy, bonus to all staff and the weakness of this strategy.
  • Body of paragraph 2: Another possibility is to create incentive schemes—‘employees of the month’, ‘worker of the week’, tips offered by clients, weaknesses of tipping.

 

Hasil dari ‘brainstorming’ ini selanjutnya kita tulis dalam ‘body of paragraph’ berikut ini:

 

One obvious way of doing this is to offer extra money to employees who are seen to be working exceptionally hard and this is done in companies with a product to sell. For example, real estate agents or department stores can offer a simple commission on all sales.This style of management favours people who can demonstrate their contribution through sales figures, but does not take into account the work done by people behind the scenes who have little contact with the public. A better approach is for management to offer a bonus to all the staff at the end of the year if the profits are healthy. This, however, does not allow management to target individuals who have genuinely worked harder than others.

 

Another possibility is to identify excellent staff through incentive schemes such as ‘Employees of the month” or ‘Worker of the week’ to make people feel recognized. Such people are usually singled out with the help of clients. Hotels, restaurants and tour operators may also allow staff to accept tips offered by clients who are pleased with the service. However, tipping is a highly unreliable source of money and does not favour everyone.

 

 

 

 

 

Keterangan:

‘Body of paragraph’ di atas sebenarnya mengandung dua poin.Poin pertama dijelaskan dalam ‘body of paragraph 1’ dengan kalimat pembuka ‘one obvious way of doing this is to offer extra money to employees’. Frase ‘one obvious’ way sebenarnya sama dengan ‘firstly’. Frase ini dapat Anda gunakan dalam esai-esai Anda untuk menghindari penggunaan kata ‘firstly’ yang monoton.

 

Poin yang kedua Anda ungkapkan dalam ‘body of paragraph 2’ dengan kalimat pembuka, “Another possibility is to identify excellent staff through incentive schemes”. Frase ‘another possibility’ sama artinya dengan ‘secondly’, namun penggunaan frase ini jelas akan lebih menarik daripada sekedar ‘secondly’.

 

Langkah 3: menulis kesimpulan

 

Untuk menulis kesimpulan, Anda dapat menyebut bahwa sebenarnya para karyawan membutuhkan pengakuan baik itu melalui uang ataupun kata-kata yang memberi semangat.Para karyawan juga memerlukan pengakuan bahwa kontribusi mereka sangatlah berharga bagi perusahaan. Manajemen yang bagus akan mengerti kebutuhan ini dan meresponnya dengan baik.

 

Ide-ide ini kemudian kita tuliskan sebagai kesimpulan:

 

To sum up, basically employees want to be recognized for their contribution—whether through receiving more money or simply some encouraging words. They also need to feel that their contribution to the whole organization is worthwhile. Good management recognizes this need and responds appropriately.

 

Esai Utuh

 

Inilah esai utuh yang telah kita tulis di atas:

 

In time of high unemployement, employers need do very little to encourage the staff to work hard. However, when job vacancies are scarce, they have to find effective ways of rewarding their staff in order to stop them from going elsewhere.

 

One obvious way of doing this is to offer extra money to employees who are seen to be working exceptionally hard and this is done in companies with a product to sell. For example, real estate agents or department stores can offer a simple commission on all sales.

 

This style of management favours people who can demonstrate their contribution through sales figures, but does not take into account the work done by people behind the scenes who have little contact with the public. A better approach is for management to offer a bonus to all the staff at the end of the year if the profits are healthy. This, however, does not allow management to target individuals who have genuinely worked harder than others.

 

Another possibility is to identify excellent staff through incentive schemes such as ‘Employees of the month” or ‘Worker of the week’ to make people feel recognized. Such people are usually singled out with the help of clients. Hotels, restaurants and tour operators may also allow staff to accept tips offered by clients who are pleased with the service. However, tipping is a highly unreliable source of money and does not favour everyone.

 

Basically employees want to be recognized for their contribution—whether through receiving more money or simply some encouraging words. They also need to feel that their contribution to thr whole organization is worthwhile. Good management recognizes this need and responds appropriately.

 

Contoh soal 12

 

Popular hobbies and interests change over time and are more a reflection of trends and fashions than an indication of what individuals really want to do in their spare time. To what extent do you agree with this statement?

 

Langkah 1: menulis pembukaan

 

Kata-kata kunci dalam soal di atas adalah ‘popular hobbies’, ‘interest’, ‘trends and fashions’. Soal di atas menganggap bahwa hobi dan kesukaan bukanlah hal yang memang diinginkan oleh individu. Namun hobi yang selalu berubah adalah wujud dari tren dan gaya hidup yang selalu berubah. Nah, Anda kemudian ditanya sejauh mana Anda setuju terhadap pernyataan ini.

 

Untuk membuka kalimat dalam pembukaan, Anda dapat membandingkan bahwa pilihan kegiatan waktu luang saat ini lebih banyak daripada masa lalu. Lalu dalam ‘thesis statement’ Anda dapat mengatakan bahwa pilihan-pilihan hobi adalah refleksi dari tren dan gaya hidup. Marilah gagasan-gagasan ini kita tulis dalam bagian pembukaan:

 

By comparison with even the recent past, the choice of leisure activities on offer today is vast. Therefore, it is reasonable to find that some of these activities reflect the trends and fads of the day.

 

Langkah 2: menulis ‘body of paragraph’

 

Thesis statement dalam pembukaan mengindikasikan bahwa dalam bagian ‘body of paragraph’ Anda harus menulis bahwa sebagian dari aktifitas hobi merefleksikan tren dan gaya hidup saat itu. Ini dapat Anda tuangkan dalam ‘body of paragraph 1’.

 

Dalam ‘body of paragraph 2’ Anda dapat menulis bahwa sebagian aktifitas juga merupakan pilihan individu-individu yang bersangkutan.Dalam hal ini Anda tidak menyetujui 100% terhadap pertanyaan dalam soal.

 

Marilah kita gali informasi lebih lanjut dengan melakukan ‘brainstorming’:

  • Body of paragraph 1: Increasing activities does not gurantee continuity—hobbies come and go, example; roller blading, snow boarding, electronic games.
  • Body of paragraph 2: Not everyone is a victim of fashion—traditional hobbies continue to be popular, make friends, share a common interest.

 

Sekarang mari coba kita tuangkan gagasan-gagasan hasil brainstorming ke dalam ‘body of paragraph’ berikut ini:

 

People have far more money and time than before to pursue their interests but the ever-increasing number of activities does not automatically guarantee continuity. In fact new hobbies come and go. For example, sports such as roller-blading lose their fascination after a few months. Similarly, although snow boarding has taken over from traditional skiing, it is doubtful whether its popularity will last. Other things like electronic games go out of date almost as soon as you have bought them because the manufactures promote the fact that only the latest version is worth having, and so ensure continued sales.

 

On the other hand, not everyone is a victim of fashion in this way and people of all ages and backgrounds may take up hobbies for social reasons. Traditional hobbies range from participation in active sports like tennis to old favorites such as chess and stamp collecting, and these continue to be popular. By joining a club, people can make friends and feel part of a group with whom they can share a common interest and leisure time. Where sport is concerned, most people know what they like and participate out of love of the game, rather than because it is currently fashionable.

 

Keterangan:

Lihat frase-frase yang saya garisbawahi.Frase ‘for example’ digunakan untuk memberi contoh.Dalam paragraf di atas ‘for example’ digunakan untuk memberi contoh bahwa olahraga ‘roller blading’ cepat memudar setelah beberapa bulan.Kata ‘similarly’ digunakan untuk memberi contoh selanjutnya dari olahraga yang cepat ditinggalkan orang, yakni ‘traditional skiing’.Frase ‘other things’ juga digunakan untuk memberi contoh kesenangan sebagai hasil dari tren, yakni ‘electronic games’.

 

Dalam ‘body of paragraph 2’, frase ‘on the other hand’ digunakan untuk mengungkap gagasan-gagasan yang bertentangan dalam ‘body of paragraph 1’.Jika pada ‘body of paragraph 1’ Anda menulis tentang olahraga dan kesenangan yang bersifat tren, pada ‘body of paragraph 2’ Anda menulis olahraga dan kesenangan karena pilihan individu yang bersangkutan.

 

Langkah 3: menulis kesimpulan

 

Dalam bagian kesimpulan, Anda dapat merangkum dua inti dari ‘body of paragraph’. Pertama, gaya hidup dan tren terkadang berpengaruh terhadap hobi. Namun Anda juga mengungkapkan bahwa sebagian besar dari orang-orang memilih hobi karena mereka memang suka. Lihat kesimpulan berikut:

 

I feel, therefore, that while fashion may have an influence, particularly among the young, the majority of people enjoy their hobbies for their own sake.

 

Esai Utuh

 

Inilah esai utuh yang telah kita tulis di atas:

 

By comparison with even the recent past, the choice of leisure activities on offer today is vast. Therefore, it is reasonable to find that some of these activities reflect the trends and fads of the day.

 

People have far more money and time than before to pursue their interests but the ever-increasing number of activities does not automatically guarantee continuity In fact new hobbies come and go. For example, sports such as roller-blading lose their fascination after a few months. Similarly, although snow boarding has taken over from traditional skiing it is doubtful whether its popularity will last. Other things like electronic games go out of date almost as soon as you have bought them because the manufactures promote the fact that only the latest version is worth having, and so ensure continued sales.

 

On the other hand, not everone is a victim of fashion in this way and people of all ages and backgrounds may take up hobbies for social reasons. Traditional hobbies range from participation in active sports like tennis to old favorites such as chess and stamp collecting, and these continue to be popular. By joining a club, people can make friends and feel part of a group with whom they can share a common interest and leisure time. Where sport is concerned, most people know what they like and participate out of love of the game, rather than because it is currently fashionable.

 

I feel therefore, that while fashion may have an influence, particularly among the young, the majority of people enjoy their hobbies for their own sake.

 

 

Contoh soal 13

The responsibility for the environment rests with the individual and not only with the government. Do you agree?

 

Langkah 1: Menulis Pembukaan

 

Kata kunci dari soal di atas adalah ‘responsibility of the environment’, ‘individual’ dan ‘government’.Singkatnya, soal di atas menanyakan apakah Anda setuju bahwa tanggung jawab terhadap lingkungan berada dipundak individu, bukan pemerintah.

 

Untuk membuka, Anda dapat menulis hal-hal yang umum seputar isu lingkungan termasuk polusi, perubahan iklim, lubang ozon dan akibatnya.Anda juga dapat mengungkap bahwa belum banyak hal yang dilakukan untuk mengatasi masalah lingkungan tersebut.Maka, dalam ‘thesis statement’ Anda mengajukan sebuah gagasan bahwa tanggung jawab kepada lingkungan harus diemban oleh setiap orang. Silakan lihat contoh berikut ini:

 

 

Everyone is becoming aware that the environment is a serious issue. There is bad air and water pollution everywhere and we also know that the greenhouse effect is changing our weather and that the hole in the the ozone layer is causing skin cancer. However, not enough is being done to solve these problems, because most people seem to be waiting for governments to make the decisions. In fact, the responsibility for protecting the environment must be shared by everyone. Individuals can and should do many things to help to solve the problem.

 

Langkah 2: menulis ‘body of paragraph’

 

Berdasarkan ‘thesis statement’ yang digarisbawahi di atas, setiap individu bertanggung jawab dalam menjaga lingkungan dan individu dapat melakukan beberapa hal untuk dapat menjaga lingkungan.

 

Nah, dalam ‘body of paragraph’, Anda dapat mengajukan beberapa hal yang dapat dilakukan setiap individu dalam menjaga lingkungan. Mari kita lakukan ‘brainstorming’:

 

  • Body of paragraph 1: All people should be responsible in the way that they dispose waste—don’t throw the plastic into rivers and ocean, do not buy goods that have too much wrapping.
  • Body of paragraph 2: People should be responsible in the way they use water—do not waste the water, example; Australia, most countries run out of water.
  • Body of paragraph 3: People should use cars less—prevent greenhouse effect, use public transport, use bicycles, walk.
  • Body of paragraph 4: Let government know.

 

Mari hasil ‘brainstorming’ ini kita tuangkan dalam ‘body of paragraph’:

 

First of all people can make sure that they are responsible in the way that they dispose of waste. If people throw rubbish like plastic into rivers and ocean, it always stays there, and causes fish and sea-birds to die. It is also important to make sure that we do not buy goods that have too much wrapping on them, especially plastic wrapping, because if we do, we are adding to the huge amount of waste.

 

People also need to be responsible in the way that they use water. In some countries, like Australia, an enormous amount of water is wasted for swimming pools, washing cars and so on. Most countries are running out of fresh water.

 

If people used their cars less, this would help to prevent the greenhouse effect. Everyone can try to use public transport more, or use bicycles, or even walk, instead of using their cars for even short trips.

 

Finally, the most important thing that individuals can do is to let their governments know that they want something to be done about the environment. It is obvious that the governments will not do anything unless the people force them to.

 

Keterangan:

Simaklah frase-frase yang digarisbawahi.Pertama, frase ‘first of all’ dapat Anda gunakan untuk memulai paragraf pertama dalam ‘body of paragraph’. Frase ini sama artinya dengan ‘firstly’. Pada bagian ini Anda menyebut cara yang pertama bagi individu untuk ikut memelihara lingkungan.

 

Cara yang kedua Anda letakkan pada ‘body of paragraph 2’ dengan penggunaan kata ‘also’. Pada paragraph selanjutnya, klausa ‘if….’ Digunakan untuk menambahkan lagi cara yang dapat digunakan orang untuk menjaga lingkungan. Dan pada ‘body of paragraph’ terakhir, Anda dapat menggunakan kata ‘finally’ sebagai ‘signposting’.

 

Langkah 3: menulis kesimpulan

 

Pada bagian kesimpulan, Anda dapat menekankan sekali lagi bahwa setiap individu harus bertanggung jawab untuk menjaga lingkungan.Anda juga membuat semacam prediksi jika tanggung jawab ini tidak dilakukan oleh kita. Lihat kesimpulan berikut:

 

It is therefore clear that individuals must take responsibility for the environment, otherwise it will soon be too late, and we and the next generation will suffer serious consequences.

 

Esai Utuh

 

Inilah esai utuh yang telah kita tulis di atas:

 

Everyone is becoming aware that the environment is a serious issue. There is bad air and water pollution everywhere and we also know that the greenhouse effect is changing our weather and that the hole in the the ozone layer is causing skin cancer. However, not enough is being done to solve these problems, because most people seem to be waiting for governments to make the decisions. In fact, the responsibility for protecting the environment must be shared by everyone. Individuals can and should do many things to help to solve the problem.

 

First of all people can make sure that they are responsible in the way that they dispose of waste. If people throw rubbish like plastic into rivers and ocean, it always stays there, and causes fish and sea-birds to die. It is also important to make sure that we do not buy goods that have too much wrapping on them, especially plastic wrapping, because if we do, we are adding to the huge amount of waste.

 

People also need to be responsible in the way that they use water. In some countries, like Australia, an enormous amount of water is wasted for swimming pools, washing cars and so on. Most countries are running out of fresh water.

 

If people used their cars less, this would help to prevent the greenhouse effect. Everyone can try to use public transport more, or use bicycles, or even walk, instead of using thei cars for even short trips.

 

Finally, the most important thing that individuals can do is to let their governments know that they want something to be done about the environment. It is obvious that the governments will not do anything unless the people force them to.

 

It is, therefore, clear that individuals must take responsibility for the environment, otherwise it will soon be too late, and we and the next generation will suffer serious consequences.

 

Contoh soal 14

 

It is sometimes argued that because tertiary education is of greater benefit to the individual than to the society, all students should pay full fees. What is your opinion?

 

Langkah 1: menulis pembukaan

 

Soal di atas mengungkapkan bahwa karena pendidikan tinggi (tertiary education) memberi lebih banyak keuntungan kepada individu daripada masyarakat, biaya pendidikan harus dibebankan kepada mahasiswa.Dan Anda ditanya apakah Anda setuju dengan pendapat ini.

 

Nah dalam pembukaan, Anda dapat menyebutkan keuntungan pendidikan tinggi baik bagi individu maupun masyarakat.Dalam ‘thesis statement’ Anda dapat menyebut bahwa pertanyaan tentang siapa yang mengambil keuntungan lebih banyak (individu atau masyarakat) dari pendidikan tinggi adalah penting untuk menentukan siapa yang harus membayar biaya pendidikan tinggi. Marilah gagasan-gagasan ini kita tuangkan dalam pembukaan berikut ini:

 

As the modern world is becoming increasingly complex and knowledge is becoming more and more specialized, there is no doubt that tertiary educationis necessary both for the whole society and for individuals who want to ensure that they have a good profession. The question of who benefits more is important to societies and governments in deciding who should be expected to pay for the costs involved.

 

Langkah 2: menulis ‘body of paragraph’

 

‘Thesis statement’ yang kita buat mengindikasikan bahwa dalam ‘body of paragraph’, kita harus mengulas siapa yang mendapatkan keuntungan dari pendidikan tinggi. Karena pertanyaannya adalah apakah masyarakat atau individu yang akan lebih banyak mendapatkan keuntungan dari pendidikan tinggi, maka kita dapat mengulas satu demi satu. Dalam ‘body of paragraph 1’, kita dapat mengulas bahwa masyarakat dapat mengambil keuntungan dari pendidikan tinggi.Dalam ‘body of paragraph 2’, kita dapat mengulas bahwa individu dapat mengambil keuntungan dari pendidikan tinggi.

 

Untuk menggali ide, marilah kita lakukan ‘brainstorming’ terlebih dahulu:

  • Body of paragraph 1: There is no doubt that the whole society benefits—efforts to raise the educational level in developing countries, universities expensive to run, countries cannot move without professionals, scholarship, free tertiary education.
  • Body of paragraph 1: Individual also benefits—doctors etc have high income, society should not pay for students, students come from middle up family, some students cannot afford, can overcome by system applied in Australia.

 

Marilah hasil dari ‘brainstorming’ ini kita tuangkan dalam ‘body of paragraph’ di bawah ini:

 

There is no doubt that the whole society benefits. In all developing countries there has been a strong effort to raise the educational level of society by putting as much money as possible into providing educational insititutions. Universities and colleges are, however, expensive to run. Because of this, it is felt that such countires are held back in all forms of development. Without enough educated professionals such as doctors, teachers, scientists and engineers, developing countries cannot move ahead. Governments in such countries provide scholarships, or free education, to as many students as they can afford, because they realize that the whole society will benefit. Many developed countries also try to offer free tertiary education because they want a highly educated population.

 

However, there is also strong argument that individuals benefit so much from tertiary education that they should be expected to pay for it. Doctors, lawyers, accountants and engineers have some of the highest incomes in most societies. People argue that the government, and therefore the tax payers, should not pay for students who will latter earn more than anyone else. Moreover,most students come from the middle classes and their parents can afford to pay for their fees. There are, of course, some students who cannot afford to pay. This problem can be overcomeby a systemlike the one being used in Australia, for example. The government gives the students a loan to pay for their fees, and later, when they are earning a good salary, they repay the loan.

 

Keterangan:

Dalam ‘body of paragraph 1’ ada sebuah kalimat menarik; “There is no doubt that the whole society benefits”. “Tidak meragukan lagi bahwa seluruh masyarakat mengambil keuntungan dari pendidikan tinggi”, begitulah maknanya.Kalimat ini menuntut Anda untuk menggambarkan berbagai keuntungan yang dapat diambil oleh masyarakat dari pendidikan tinggi.

 

Dalam ‘body of paragraph 2’ Anda menggunakan kata hubung ‘however’ untuk menggambarkan bahwa individu juga mengambil keuntungan dari pendidikan tinggi.

 

Langkah 3: menulis kesimpulan

 

Kesimpulannya, sangatlah sulit untuk menentukan siapa yang harus membayar pendidikan tinggi karena baik masyarakat maupun individu mengambil manfaat dari pendidikan tinggi.Untuk itu kita dapat memberi saran bahwa baik individu maupun masyarakat harus membayar pendidikan tinggi secara seimbang. Lihat kesimpulan di bawah ini:

 

It is probably impossible to decide whether the individual of the society benefits more from tertiary education, but since both benefits, the costs should probably be paid for by both equally.

 

Esai Utuh

 

Inilah esai utuh yang telah kita tulis di atas:

 

As the modern world is becoming increasingly complex and knowledge is becoming more and more specialized, there is no doubt that tertiary educationis necessary both for the whole society and for individuals who want to ensure that they have a good profession. The question of who benefits more is important to societies and governments in deciding who should be expected to pay for the costs involved. This is a difficult question.

 

There is no doubt that the whole society benefits. In all developing countries there has been a strong effort to raise the educational level of society by putting as much money as possible into providing educational insititutions. Universities and colleges are, however, expensive to run. Because of this, it is felt that such countires are held back in all forms of development. Without enough educated professionals such as doctors, teachers, scientists and engineers, developing countries cannot move ahead. Governments in such countries provide scholarships, or free education, to as many students as they can afford, because they realize that the whole society will benefit. Many developed countries also try to offer free tertiary education because they want a highly educated population.

 

However, there is also strong argument that individuals benefit so much from tertiary education that they should be expected to pay for it. Doctors, lawyers, accountants and engineers have some of the highest incomes in most societies. People aruge that the government, and therefore the tax payers, should not pay for students who will latter earn more than anyone else. Moreover,most students come from the middle classes and their parents can afford to pay for their fees. There are, of course, some students who cannot afford to pay. This problem can be overcomeby a systemlike the one being used in Australia, for example. The government gives the students a loan to pay for their fees, and later, when they are earning a good salary, they repay the loan.

 

It is probably impossible to decide whether the individual of the society benefits more from tertiary education, but since both benefits, the costs should probably be paid for by both equally.

 

 

 

Appendix

BANK SOAL UNTUK LATIHAN ESAI IELTS

 

  1. 1.   To be successful in education, it is more important to be a good student than to have good teachers. Would you support that statement?
  2. 2.   ‘Money cannot buy happiness’ it is often claimed. But with money you can buy most of the things that are necessary for happiness: good food, accommodation, entertainment, travel, quality health care, etc. No wonder most people want to make as much money as possible. Do you agree or disagree?
  3. 3.   In every city the car is king of the raod. Cars cause death and injury and air pollution, and they make life difficult and dangerous for others. It is time to reduce the number of cars in our cities and to encourage other means of transport. Do you aree with this opinion?
  4. 4.   Most pollution, especially air and water pollution, is caused by industry. If we want to protect the environment we should make factories and other forms of industry pay for all the pollution that they cause. That is the only way to make sure that the owners will make a serious effort to reduce the pollution that they cause. To what extent do you agree with this opinion?
  5. 5.   Most education systems rely on examininations to encourage children to study, but as a result children suffer from too much stress and they never learn to be creative. Therefore, examinations should be abolished. Do you agree?
  6. 6.   It is often argued that children must be protected from unsuitable material on TV and the internet by government censorship. Others say that it is the parents’ responsibility to control what their children do and watch. To what extent do you think that this is true?
  7. 7.   The internet has provided great benefits, but at the same time it has also created new problems and inequalities. Is it possible to control some of these problems?
  8. 8.   The environment is one of the most important issues in the world today, but governments are not doing enough about it. To what extent do you think that individuals can help to protect the environment?
  9. 9.   Many modern children spend a great deal of time sitting in front of a television or computer screen. This is extremely harmful to their development. Therefore parents should strickly limit the time children spend in this way.
  10. 10.  We live in technological age. However, technology cannot solve all the world’s problems. Therefore some people that we need to place less emphasis on technological solutions and more on other values.
  11. 11.    We know that many kinds of animals can feel pain and emotional suffering just as humans do. It is therefore necessary to support animal rights as well as human rights. Do you agree?
  12. 12.    We are surrounded by advertising. Some people think that this is good, because it gives us choices as consumers, but others argue that it makes people selfish and greedy for more and more goods. Do you think that there should be less advertising?
  13. 13.    Tobacco and alcohol are drugs that cause addiction and health problems. Should they be made illegal? Or should all drugs be legalized?
  14. 14.    As there is increasing unemployement in the world, while at the same time those who have jobs are working harder and harder, it would be better to have 4 day working weeks for everone, and so create more jobs. What is your opinion about this suugestion?
  15. 15.    International sports competitions are the best way to prevent conflict. National feelings can be expressed in friendly competition, rather than fighting, and sports herouse are better role models than fighters. The large sum of money spend on international sport competition such as the Olympic Games are therefore justified. Do you agree?
  16. 16.    Professional sport involves large sum of money and receives enormous media coverage.Meanwhile serious culture, including music, art and theatre, is badly neglected. This is making our society shallower. Do you think that this is the case?
  17. 17.    Young people are said to have lost many of the traditional values of the older generation. This does not matter because the old values have no relevance in the modern world. We need to develop a whole new set of values. Do you support this statement?
  18. 18.    The increasing role of English in the world means that the learning of other languages is being neglected. This will have serious results for the continued use of these languages and of their cultures. What is your opinion?
  19. 19.    Modern technology has increased our material health, but not our happiness. To what extent do you agree with this statement?
  20. 20.    At present we rely on oil for most of our energy needs. However, oil is a fossil fuel and causes air pollution, and it will eventually run out. Nuclear energy is the only practical and clean source of energy for the world. Do you agree? (Adapated from Duigu, 2003).

 

 

Bibliografi:

 

Boardman, C, Frydenberg, 2002, Writing to communicate, Pearson Education, New York.

Duigu, G, 2002, Eassy writing for English test, Academic English Press, Chippendale.

Sahanaya, W, Lindeck, J & Stewart, R, 1998, IELTS preparation practice, Oxford University Press, New York.

Slater, S, Millen, D & Tyrie, P 2003, IELTS on track, Language Australia, Ltd, Melbourne.