DEVELOPING LECTURERS’ ISLAMIC LEADERSHIP AND MANAGEMENT TO FACE THE CHALLENGE OF GLOBALIZATION

Endro Dwi Hatmanto, UMY

Paper presented in the International Seminar, IIUM, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 2009

Abstract

Globalization is a sword with two edges for higher education in Islamic countries. In one edge, globalization offers opportunity for lecturers and students to access, disseminate and communicate information and knowledge thanks to the advent of internet and information technology. On the other edge, however, the wide opportunity of information access causes the information overload. Much of the information contains values and worldviews which are alien to Islamic principles. Many scholars suggest that globalization is a complex range of process and events driven solely by a mixture of political and economic influence. It touches all of our lives – including educational domain-even in the ways in which human relates with God and other people. The example of major effects of globalization is the rise of secular and materialistic life and intense individualism. This leads to selfish and self-serving means which are often used to achieve ends that are inimical to Islamic education and values. Selfish and materialistic way of life can, in fact, become an addiction which might contribute to more widespread social malaise for Muslim society. It is not only individuals in society who can become addicted, or who contribute to these addictive process, a number of our societal agencies and institution, including higher education may also be part of the problem. While the destructive impacts of globalization challenge higher education, lecturers are trapped in positioning themselves as merely ‘secular managers’. This results in another complicated problem in which many lecturers have insufficient understanding of performing their leadership function in the teaching and learning process. Instead, they view the teaching and learning process as deterministic and mechanistic system in which the teaching and learning process is often considered as merely the transfer of knowledge. Little attention is paid to use teaching and learning process for transferring the values. The paper argues that to overcome this problem, lecturers should adopt both the concept of Islamic management and leadership in the teaching and learning process in higher education. In order to achieve the aim of the research, the library research is conducted. The theory of globalization and its negative impacts in the educational process in higher education will be explored. Then, the principles of Islamic management and leadership practiced and taught by the Prophet and Qur’an will be presented and analyzed. Having presented the concepts of the Islamic management and leadership, the paper attempts to offer the strategies to develop educational management and leadership in the teaching and learning process which can be adopted by lecturers. Covey’s framework for developing lecturers’ leadership and management will be used in this paper. The framework consists of modeling, path finding, aligning, and empowering.

Keywords: Globalization, management, leadership, Islamic management and leadership

All of you are leaders and are responsible for your leadership. The ruler is a leader of his subjects, the man is a leader of his family, the woman is a leader and is responsible for her husband’s house and his offspring; and so all of you are leader and are responsible for your subjects”

Shahih Al-Bukhari

1. Introduction

Lecturers at higher education are confronted by both internal and external challenge and expectations that make considerable demands on their time, expertise, energies and emotional well being. One of the biggest challenges is posed by the emergence of globalization.

In the Islamic countries including Indonesia, lecturer at higher education are increasingly being held responsible for both performance and compliance with Islamic ethical and moral standards in their educational practices.

While some lecturers may experience confusion, even frustration, in attempting to respond productively to the globalization challenges, many other lecturers feel used, even devalued, by the current emphasis on educational management values, strategies and practices in many educational organizations. In other words, many lecturers are faced with tension of the demands of ‘managerialism’ stressing on efficiency, productivity and accountability. On the contrary, the expectation of lecturers to position themselves as leaders being responsible for cultivating Islamic values in higher education is reduced, even annihilated.

In fact, at the end of the third millennium the challenges offered by globalization are mounting. While many scholars suggest that globalization is a complex range of process and events driven solely by a mixture of political and economic influence, globalization actually touches all of our lives – including educational domain-even in the ways in which human relates with God and other people. The example of major effects of globalization is the rise of secular and materialistic life and intense individualism. This leads to selfish and self-serving means which are often used to achieve ends that are inimical to Islamic education and values. Secular and materialistic way of life can, in fact, become an addiction which might contribute to more widespread social malaise for Muslim society. It is not only individuals in society who can become addicted, or who contribute to these addictive process, a number of our societal agencies and institution, including higher education may also be part of the problem.

Many lecturers at higher education are expected to develop ethical responsibility to optimize learning opportunities by creating learning environment that are Islamic, visionary, strategic, student centered and motivational. However, many lecturers are still trapped in the deterministic and mechanistic system of teaching and learning. Indeed this is due to the fanaticism in adopting the ‘managerialism’ approach in educational system. Using this system lectures regard educating as merely the transfer of knowledge.

This paper argues that facing the challenge of globalization, instead of being merely managers lecturers should perform their leadership functions in the teaching and learning process. This is to suggest that not only do lecturers transfer knowledge, but lecturers should also transfer the Islamic values.

This paper is written in the context of assisting lecturer to be both manager and leader in the milieu of educational process in the globalization era which is sensitive to the need for the sound Islamic ethical standards embodied in the teaching and learning process.

To achieve this aim, the paper is structured as follows. First, the theory of globalization and its negative impacts in the educational process in the Muslim society will be explored. Then, the principles of Islamic management and leadership practiced and taught by the Prophet and Qur’an will be presented and analyzed. Having presented the concepts of Islamic management and leadership, the paper attempts to offer strategies to develop Islamic educational management and leadership in the teaching and learning process which can be adopted by lecturers.

2. Globalization and Its Impact to Moslem Countries

2.1 Globalization: Its Definition and Its Multi-Dimensional Impacts.

Globalization can be defined as a catch-all term for the expansion of diverse forms of economic, political, and cultural activity beyond national borders (Calhoun, 2002). At the economic level, globalization involves the emergence of a complex system of multinational capitalism in which corporations conduct business and locate production at locations worldwide. This includes the development of a system of international finance capable of rapidly shifting large amounts of investment capital from one place to another, as economic or political condition dictates.

According to Calhoun (2002) economic globalization is closely tied to political developments that are intended to facilitate and control international trade. The emergence of the IMF (International Monetary Fund) as a regulator of international economic stability and the creation of a Word Trade Organization with sovereign authority over trade disputes among its members are prominent examples.

The impact of globalization in the economic dimension has produced a strong geographical division among countries that separates the powerful core industrial nations from semi-peripheral and peripheral nations. The core industrial nations include the United States, most of Western Europe, and Japan. The semi-peripheral nations comprise newly industrious countries, such as Mexico and Malaysia while the peripheral nations are those that primarily supply raw materials to the industrial nations, on terms largely determined by the multinational companies and their proxies.

Unfortunately, the economic geographical division constitutes the domination of countries with strong economy on the country with poor economy. Roskin et al (2000) argue that that due to globalization, economic growth is highly uneven since the key players are giant corporations and the core industrial countries. The third world countries remain peripheral. The consequence of the industrial countries’ domination over the world economy is that the economic growth becomes uneven. According to Roskin et al (2000) contrary to the core industrial countries which becomes prosperous, the peripheral countries become fall further behind.

Globalization also has a cultural dimension, ‘as international capitalism homogenizes consumer good and services’ (ibid, 2002). Ritzer (1993) describes this process by the term McDonaldization of society. Equally important in this context is the ongoing communication revolution, as the internet, phone services, and other means of international communication become ubiquitous and affordable-at least for those who are privileged enough to participate in the global economy. This raises a last dimension of globalization that touches simultaneously on cultural, economic, and political issues: the emergence of an international capitalist class whose culture, economic, and political allegiances are broadly defined by loyalty to and dependence on the system.

Globalization might bring benefits. According to Roskin et al (2000) with a largely free flow of trade, the world economy is growing as never before, especially in the third world. Poorer countries, some written off as basket cases, are stirring to life. More products, including previously expensive items, are produced in abundance and at low cost, enabling most of the world to enjoy VCRs and computers. Additionally, big, transnational corporations are proud to be able to design an item in one country, assemble it in a second country with components from a third, and market it in a fourth without the borders.

2.2 Impacts of Globalization to Moslem Countries

Prosperity promised by globalization does not necessarily bring peace (Ibid, 2000). Roskin points out that indeed, newly affluent countries often demand respect, resources, and sometimes territory. Roskin further gives an example of China. According to Roskin, as China got richer in the 1990s it defined its borders more grandly, reaching far out into the South and East China seas, where there is undersea oil.

The opponents of the Globalization often relate the globalization concept with the spreading of the Westernization and Americanization. By definition, Westernization and Americanization is projects that spread the Western and American values around the world. Gramcy (cited in Calhoun, 2002) coined this phenomenon as a cultural hegemony[1].

As the dominant power, economically and politically, America and Western countries attempt to spread their values to people around the world. Odom and Dujarric (2004) describes the domination of America around the world as ‘America’s inadvertent empire’. According to Odom and Dujarric (2004), the sources of America’s domination are military, demography, economy, university, science, media and mass culture. Through these domination of sources America manages to ‘colonize’ other countries economically, politically and culturally (ibid, 2004)

As a result, many nations attempts to fight against this form of cultural hegemony. The book entitled ‘Jihad and MacWord’ written by Barber (1995) shows how Muslims nations – and other nations – make effort to oppose the socialization of Western-capitalistic values to the Muslim countries.

In fact, globalization brings about a number of negative impacts on economy, politic, culture and morality, and education to Moslem society. In the next section the impacts of globalization on education and culture will be highlighted and focused since these two areas give tremendous influence in the shaping of the Muslims world view and education.

2.2.3 Impacts on Culture

The International Institute of Islamic Thought / IIT (1988) points out that most of Moslem countries take westernization, lured by the successful example of the West and prompted by their Westernized advisers. IIT (1989, p. 46) states:

“Westernized Muslim leaders did not grasp the fact that their programs would sooner or later undermine the very foundations of the faith and culture of their subjects. The connection between the manifestations of Western productivity and power and the Western views on God and man; on life, nature, the world; and on time and history was too subtle for Muslims leaders to grasp or, in their hurry, to consider. A secular system of education was built that taught Western values and methods. Soon graduates who were ignorant of the Islamic legacy began to pour into society. The new graduates became suspicious of the majority of the guardians of the legacy, the ulama’, who were dogmatists, legalists, and literalists, who failed to distinguish between those justice verdicts (ahkaan) of the Qur’an and the Sunnah that could be discarded or dismissed, and those matters that are open to creative exercise of judgment (Ijtihad). The graduates’ suspicion of the guardians of the legacy increased and a gap began to develop within the ranks of the Ummah, dividing it into Westernizing secularizers and opponents of secularization”

Husaini (2006) supports IIT’s argument stating that the agents of Westernization attack everything either directly or indirectly. The perfection of the Qur’anic text, the prophet’s message, the veracity of the sunnah, the glories of the Muslims achievements in civilization and the comprehensiveness of the shari’ah are denigrated. Husaini (2006) argues that the purpose is to inject doubt into the Muslim’s confidence in themselves, in their Ummah and in their faith. This leads to undermining their Islamic consciousness and subvert their Islamic personality. This condition is worsened by the emergence of media in the globalization era promoting Western culture. Newspaper, books and magazines, radio and television, cinema and theater, records and tapes and street poster and neon signs bombarded them daily with such effects.

Bombarded by the alien Western culture and way of life through the media in the era of globalization, Muslims lost their integrity of Islamic culture. The unity of the Islamic style of life is shattered in their thought, in their own person, actions and their families. ‘Instead of raising themselves from their debasement to height of virtue and societal efficacy envisaged from them by Islam, Muslim men and women began to hanker after the manifestations of Western decade: gradually nudity and immorality of dress and make-up (tabarruj), economic independence aimed at individualistic license, egotistic pursuit of pleasure, and avoidance of duties imposed by family relationships.

Similar to this argument, some Western writers voice the same notion. For example, Giddens (1998, P. 33) in his groundbreaking book ‘The third way’, suggested that globalization is a complex range of process and events driven, primarily, by ‘…a mixture of political and economic influences’. It is interesting to note that globalization touches all people’s lives, transforming our social and institutional process, even in the ways in which we relate to other people and God. It is this latter perspective on globalization that is of most interest here, because as Giddens (1998, p. 33) so clearly pointed out, globalization is ‘…directly relevant to the rise of…the “new Individualism”…’

Duignan (2006) added that ‘it would seem that globalization, especially in secular and materialistic dimensions, is contributing to a more disengaged mode of existence for many people, especially in the developed world’. Taylor (1989, p. 500) relates this condition referring to ‘…empty life of its richness, depth, or meaning’. Duignan (2006) also posits that our isolationist and self-centered ways are causing us to grasp at more temporary and ultimately less fulfilling forms of engagement, and the gradual disengagement of the self from a sense of the collective can lead to the development of selective blindness for the plight of others less fortunate than ourselves, to the point where it can become at many levels of society. In fact, many contemporary secular Western societies are based on intense individualism (Sommerville, 2000).

2.2.4 Impacts on Education

It has been generally known that due to the colonialism, the intellectual and methodological decline of the Ummah becomes the core of Muslims’ malaise. In the modern era, this condition is worsened by the globalization, making it possible for the Western values to flourish in Muslims society through media and information technology. In this juncture the educational system is the breeding ground of the malaise. Schools and universities perpetuate the self-estrangement from Islam, from its legacy and from its style.

In higher education, example of the self-estrangement from Islamic legacy includes the opposition of revelation to reason (IIT, 1989). The dichotomy between revelation and reason might be the most devastating development in the intellectual history of the Ummah (ibid, 1989). This dichotomy has been experienced by such religions as Christian and Jews. Historically Christians and Jews had been ‘Hellenized’ for centuries under the aegis of this dichotomy. In the Islamic intellectual world, the dichotomy revelation and reason experienced by Christians and Jews might be equivalent to Al-Farabi’s proposition of the ‘battle of thought’ between philosophers and theologians (Mutakallimuun). Such logic continues to dominate the field of intellectual discussion in the modern era’s education. For instance, higher education separates the general science and Islamic science. Students are expected to master general science devoid of Islamic world view. Islamic teaching is only studied in the department of Islamic Science.

Another serious problem of education brought by globalization in Muslim countries is secularization. According to the view of IIT (1989), the process of the secularization in the education domain follow the following frameworks; 1) The educational system in Moslem countries is created to be a laboratory where Muslim youth are kneaded and cut, where their consciousness is molded into a caricature of the West. Accordingly the Muslim’s link with their natural curiosity to learn the legacy of their ancestors is stymied. Furthermore, their willingness to touch base with their heritage and to spring toward creative representation of Islam is blunted with the doubts and the deviation the educational system has injected into every recess of their consciousness; 2) college and universities has been more daring in advocating their un-Islamic theme. The secularist educational school has assumed tremendous proportion, elbowing out the Islamic system from the field; 3) The public fund is poured into secularized educational system.

3. Developing Lecturers Leadership Management and Leadership

The main challenge of higher education in Muslim countries today is not only teaching skills and elevating the competence but also ‘to promote the symbolic values such ; ethical importance, their constitutive role in developing essential concept s of social justice, beauty, truth power and so on’ (Could,2003, p. 19). Islam is rich of such values proposed by Could. As lecturers are the main actors in teaching and educating the students, they become the ‘avant-garde’ and cultivator of Islamic values to students. This is especially significant with regard to the challenge of globalization as explained in the previous section.

While the destructive impacts of globalization challenge higher education, lecturers are trapped in positioning themselves as merely ‘secular managers’. This results in another complicated problem in which many lecturers have insufficient understanding of performing their leadership function in the teaching and learning process. Instead, they view the teaching and learning process as deterministic and mechanistic system in which the teaching and learning process is often considered as merely the transfer of knowledge. Little attention is paid to use teaching and learning process for transferring the values. This paper argues that lecturers should balance their position as both leader and manager in order to be able to transfer the knowledge and Islamic values to students.

3.1 Leadership and Management Defined

Literally hundreds of books and thousands of articles have come out in the last few years on leadership and management. This constitutes how vital the subjects are. A number of experts say that leadership and management are the enabling art simply because ‘they enable all the other arts and professions to work’ (Covey, 2004). As part of the literature review of leadership theories, I gather definition from leading authors who described the differences between leadership and management (See table 1)

Author

Leadership

Management

Zaleznik (1977)

Leaders are concerned with what things mean to people.

Managers are concerned with how things get done.

Marriotti (1998)

Leaders are the architects.

Managers are the builders.

Bennis (1993)

Leaders are people who do the right things.

Managers are people who do things right.

Kuozes and Posner (1995)

Leadership has about it a kinesthetic feel, a sense of movement.

Managing is about handling things, about maintaining order, about organization and control.

Table 1: Differences between leadership and management proposed by leading authors

The definitions proposed by some leading authors above show that the underlining idea of leadership is ‘leading people’ while the idea of management is ‘control thing’. This is relevant to the definition leadership proposed by Covey (2004) as ‘communicating to people their worth and potential so clearly that they come to see it in themselves’. Covey (2004, p. 101) also said that

‘We can’t ‘lead’ things. In fact, it wasn’t until I turned over the management of my company to my son Stephen, and a team of people with strengths that compensated for my weaknesses that it really became profitable. You can’t lead inventories and cash flow and costs. You have to manage them. Why? Because things don’t have power and freedom to choose. Only people do. So you lead (empower) people. You manage and control things”.

Things that people can manage are among others; money, costs, information, time, structure, systems, processes, inventory, physical resources, facilities and tools. In terms of higher education such things as curriculum, syllabus, schedule, course design, lesson plan and so forth should be managed by lecturers while students should be led.

Covey’s definition explains that leadership is not the province of formal authority in an organization or company. Therefore, to cultivate the leadership talent and ability, Covey (2004) suggests that leadership influence should be governed by principles. When a person lives by them, her or his influence and moral authority increase and she or he is often given moral even greater moral authority.

The literature review on leadership and management reinforces that both of them are vital and that either one without the other is insufficient. Therefore, in the context of this paper, lecturers should develop both leadership and management skills and ability.

3.2 Leadership in Islam

The concept of Islamic leadership is rooted in the teaching of the Qur’an and example of the Prophet Muhammad. The Islamic concept of leadership first emerges from the Qur’anic verse that expressed Allah’s wish to appoint His vicegerent on earth soil as to maintain justice among the creations both human beings and jinns that would worship Him. On hearing this, the angels were shocked and inquired: “Do thou place therein one who will do harm therein and will shed blood, while we, we hymn Thy praise and sanctify thee…?” (QS. 2: 30). What these verses inferred is that Adam is the representative of Allah on earth who is to live, worships, and maintain justice among other human beings.

Muhammad in Islam, as the first leader of the Muslim community, is the prime example of a kind of personality that stood on its own merits. This is why his words, deeds and approval are taken as an ideal pattern and regarded as the Islamic tradition and was accepted as the leader of the Muslim society.

Muhammad is introduced in the Qur’an as Rasulullah (the messenger of God) and so are the other prophets. Their authority is based on two principles; 1) Receiving the divine message, 2) spreading the message and seeing that it is carried out. The authority of other Muslim leaders likewise is based on two principles; 1) to understand the message revealed to Muhammad and, 2) to spread it and see it is carried out.

The understanding of Islamic leadership cannot be separated from the understanding that Islam is socialistic, because the object of Islam is the totality of humanity (Ezzati, 1994). This constitutes that in Islam, the human face, man’s humanity and the entire humanity count. The truth cannot be the property of a person, persons, a group, groups, a race, a nation and cannot be monopolized. It belongs to everybody, to all creatures and to the entire humanity. The human mind or soul has no vision of a relation between man and his fellows greater or a nobler than that of intellectual intercourse, and certainly no vision of a world other than that in which any man may influence, determine, transform, or refashion his fellow men by argument or examples.

It is also believed that the Muslim community is the community of ‘amr ma’ruf nahi munkar, and thus leads humanity and deserves leadership. This duty is the duty of the community first and through it the duty of its members. The leadership thus basically belongs to the community and then to its members. This is why the prophet said; “All of you are leaders and are responsible for your leadership. The ruler is leader of his subjects, the man is a leader of his family, the woman is a leader and is responsible for her husband’s house and his offspring; and so all of you are leader and are responsible for your subjects” (Shahih Al-Bukhari No. 893, 7138).

Ezzati (1994) maintains that the logical consequence of Islamic theology, tradition, Qur’anic verses is that the concept of Islamic leadership bears the following features;

1. The concept of leadership must be harmonious with the doctrine of Tauhid.

2. God is the head of the Muslim community.

3. Leadership has been given to the Muslim community and to the Prophet as the divine trust.

4. Leadership is not a political power; it is a responsibility to provide security and peace for the Muslim society to enable it to fulfill its divine purpose and goal.

5. Leadership is closely associated and actually based on the doctrine of Amr ma’ruf nahi munkar (bidding the doing of good and forbidding the abominable).

6. Leadership is a social responsibility (wajib al-kafai) originally belongs to the community as a whole and the government and leaders simply represent the community.

7. Leadership is a responsibility in Islam started with Muhammad and his leadership was based in his risalah (his mission as the messenger of God) and his authority was purely accidental and not original).

8. Prophethood and Islamic leadership is the responsibility of spreading the word of God, leading and guiding society and teaching and educating it, so that it is able to fulfill the divine purpose.

9. Leadership in Islam cannot be monopolized by a group, a race, a nation, etc.

10. There is nothing which must be performed by religious leaders which cannot be done by ordinary people except those which need knowledge of Shari’ah and specialization in Islam.

11. Leadership is a responsibility not a position; it is associated with duties not with privileges. Leadership in Islam is not a symbolic institute nor is it associated with symbolism and symbols.

3.3 Framework for Developing Islamic Leadership and Management for Lectures

Lecturers cannot deny serving their leadership functions due to several reasons. First, globalization has promoted a number of values which are un-Islamic. Therefore it is the duty of the lecturers to challenge the negative forces of globalization by educating Islamic values to students. Second, referring to Ezzati’s opinion that Leadership is a social responsibility (wajib al-kafai) originally belonging to the community as a whole – and the government and leaders simply represent the community-, lecturers cannot get rid of this social responsibility. Fulfilling this responsibility manifests their duty in taking part in the process of amr ma’ruf nahi munkar. Third, lecturers work in educational institutions, meaning that their job is to educate, transferring not only the knowledge but also the values to students’ mind.

A framework for cultivating lecturer’s Islamic leadership and management is needed in order to implement the idea. The following is the framework adapted from the one proposed by Covey (2004)


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DEVELOPING LECTURERS’ ISLAMIC LEADERSHIP AND MANAGEMENT TO FACE THE CHALLENGE OF GLOBALIZATION

Endro Dwi Hatmanto, UMY

Paper presented in the International Seminar, IIUM, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 2009

Abstract

Globalization is a sword with two edges for higher education in Islamic countries. In one edge, globalization offers opportunity for lecturers and students to access, disseminate and communicate information and knowledge thanks to the advent of internet and information technology. On the other edge, however, the wide opportunity of information access causes the information overload. Much of the information contains values and worldviews which are alien to Islamic principles. Many scholars suggest that globalization is a complex range of process and events driven solely by a mixture of political and economic influence. It touches all of our lives – including educational domain-even in the ways in which human relates with God and other people. The example of major effects of globalization is the rise of secular and materialistic life and intense individualism. This leads to selfish and self-serving means which are often used to achieve ends that are inimical to Islamic education and values. Selfish and materialistic way of life can, in fact, become an addiction which might contribute to more widespread social malaise for Muslim society. It is not only individuals in society who can become addicted, or who contribute to these addictive process, a number of our societal agencies and institution, including higher education may also be part of the problem. While the destructive impacts of globalization challenge higher education, lecturers are trapped in positioning themselves as merely ‘secular managers’. This results in another complicated problem in which many lecturers have insufficient understanding of performing their leadership function in the teaching and learning process. Instead, they view the teaching and learning process as deterministic and mechanistic system in which the teaching and learning process is often considered as merely the transfer of knowledge. Little attention is paid to use teaching and learning process for transferring the values. The paper argues that to overcome this problem, lecturers should adopt both the concept of Islamic management and leadership in the teaching and learning process in higher education. In order to achieve the aim of the research, the library research is conducted. The theory of globalization and its negative impacts in the educational process in higher education will be explored. Then, the principles of Islamic management and leadership practiced and taught by the Prophet and Qur’an will be presented and analyzed. Having presented the concepts of the Islamic management and leadership, the paper attempts to offer the strategies to develop educational management and leadership in the teaching and learning process which can be adopted by lecturers. Covey’s framework for developing lecturers’ leadership and management will be used in this paper. The framework consists of modeling, path finding, aligning, and empowering.

Keywords: Globalization, management, leadership, Islamic management and leadership

All of you are leaders and are responsible for your leadership. The ruler is a leader of his subjects, the man is a leader of his family, the woman is a leader and is responsible for her husband’s house and his offspring; and so all of you are leader and are responsible for your subjects”

Shahih Al-Bukhari

1. Introduction

Lecturers at higher education are confronted by both internal and external challenge and expectations that make considerable demands on their time, expertise, energies and emotional well being. One of the biggest challenges is posed by the emergence of globalization.

In the Islamic countries including Indonesia, lecturer at higher education are increasingly being held responsible for both performance and compliance with Islamic ethical and moral standards in their educational practices.

While some lecturers may experience confusion, even frustration, in attempting to respond productively to the globalization challenges, many other lecturers feel used, even devalued, by the current emphasis on educational management values, strategies and practices in many educational organizations. In other words, many lecturers are faced with tension of the demands of ‘managerialism’ stressing on efficiency, productivity and accountability. On the contrary, the expectation of lecturers to position themselves as leaders being responsible for cultivating Islamic values in higher education is reduced, even annihilated.

In fact, at the end of the third millennium the challenges offered by globalization are mounting. While many scholars suggest that globalization is a complex range of process and events driven solely by a mixture of political and economic influence, globalization actually touches all of our lives – including educational domain-even in the ways in which human relates with God and other people. The example of major effects of globalization is the rise of secular and materialistic life and intense individualism. This leads to selfish and self-serving means which are often used to achieve ends that are inimical to Islamic education and values. Secular and materialistic way of life can, in fact, become an addiction which might contribute to more widespread social malaise for Muslim society. It is not only individuals in society who can become addicted, or who contribute to these addictive process, a number of our societal agencies and institution, including higher education may also be part of the problem.

Many lecturers at higher education are expected to develop ethical responsibility to optimize learning opportunities by creating learning environment that are Islamic, visionary, strategic, student centered and motivational. However, many lecturers are still trapped in the deterministic and mechanistic system of teaching and learning. Indeed this is due to the fanaticism in adopting the ‘managerialism’ approach in educational system. Using this system lectures regard educating as merely the transfer of knowledge.

This paper argues that facing the challenge of globalization, instead of being merely managers lecturers should perform their leadership functions in the teaching and learning process. This is to suggest that not only do lecturers transfer knowledge, but lecturers should also transfer the Islamic values.

This paper is written in the context of assisting lecturer to be both manager and leader in the milieu of educational process in the globalization era which is sensitive to the need for the sound Islamic ethical standards embodied in the teaching and learning process.

To achieve this aim, the paper is structured as follows. First, the theory of globalization and its negative impacts in the educational process in the Muslim society will be explored. Then, the principles of Islamic management and leadership practiced and taught by the Prophet and Qur’an will be presented and analyzed. Having presented the concepts of Islamic management and leadership, the paper attempts to offer strategies to develop Islamic educational management and leadership in the teaching and learning process which can be adopted by lecturers.

2. Globalization and Its Impact to Moslem Countries

2.1 Globalization: Its Definition and Its Multi-Dimensional Impacts.

Globalization can be defined as a catch-all term for the expansion of diverse forms of economic, political, and cultural activity beyond national borders (Calhoun, 2002). At the economic level, globalization involves the emergence of a complex system of multinational capitalism in which corporations conduct business and locate production at locations worldwide. This includes the development of a system of international finance capable of rapidly shifting large amounts of investment capital from one place to another, as economic or political condition dictates.

According to Calhoun (2002) economic globalization is closely tied to political developments that are intended to facilitate and control international trade. The emergence of the IMF (International Monetary Fund) as a regulator of international economic stability and the creation of a Word Trade Organization with sovereign authority over trade disputes among its members are prominent examples.

The impact of globalization in the economic dimension has produced a strong geographical division among countries that separates the powerful core industrial nations from semi-peripheral and peripheral nations. The core industrial nations include the United States, most of Western Europe, and Japan. The semi-peripheral nations comprise newly industrious countries, such as Mexico and Malaysia while the peripheral nations are those that primarily supply raw materials to the industrial nations, on terms largely determined by the multinational companies and their proxies.

Unfortunately, the economic geographical division constitutes the domination of countries with strong economy on the country with poor economy. Roskin et al (2000) argue that that due to globalization, economic growth is highly uneven since the key players are giant corporations and the core industrial countries. The third world countries remain peripheral. The consequence of the industrial countries’ domination over the world economy is that the economic growth becomes uneven. According to Roskin et al (2000) contrary to the core industrial countries which becomes prosperous, the peripheral countries become fall further behind.

Globalization also has a cultural dimension, ‘as international capitalism homogenizes consumer good and services’ (ibid, 2002). Ritzer (1993) describes this process by the term McDonaldization of society. Equally important in this context is the ongoing communication revolution, as the internet, phone services, and other means of international communication become ubiquitous and affordable-at least for those who are privileged enough to participate in the global economy. This raises a last dimension of globalization that touches simultaneously on cultural, economic, and political issues: the emergence of an international capitalist class whose culture, economic, and political allegiances are broadly defined by loyalty to and dependence on the system.

Globalization might bring benefits. According to Roskin et al (2000) with a largely free flow of trade, the world economy is growing as never before, especially in the third world. Poorer countries, some written off as basket cases, are stirring to life. More products, including previously expensive items, are produced in abundance and at low cost, enabling most of the world to enjoy VCRs and computers. Additionally, big, transnational corporations are proud to be able to design an item in one country, assemble it in a second country with components from a third, and market it in a fourth without the borders.

2.2 Impacts of Globalization to Moslem Countries

Prosperity promised by globalization does not necessarily bring peace (Ibid, 2000). Roskin points out that indeed, newly affluent countries often demand respect, resources, and sometimes territory. Roskin further gives an example of China. According to Roskin, as China got richer in the 1990s it defined its borders more grandly, reaching far out into the South and East China seas, where there is undersea oil.

The opponents of the Globalization often relate the globalization concept with the spreading of the Westernization and Americanization. By definition, Westernization and Americanization is projects that spread the Western and American values around the world. Gramcy (cited in Calhoun, 2002) coined this phenomenon as a cultural hegemony[1].

As the dominant power, economically and politically, America and Western countries attempt to spread their values to people around the world. Odom and Dujarric (2004) describes the domination of America around the world as ‘America’s inadvertent empire’. According to Odom and Dujarric (2004), the sources of America’s domination are military, demography, economy, university, science, media and mass culture. Through these domination of sources America manages to ‘colonize’ other countries economically, politically and culturally (ibid, 2004)

As a result, many nations attempts to fight against this form of cultural hegemony. The book entitled ‘Jihad and MacWord’ written by Barber (1995) shows how Muslims nations – and other nations – make effort to oppose the socialization of Western-capitalistic values to the Muslim countries.

In fact, globalization brings about a number of negative impacts on economy, politic, culture and morality, and education to Moslem society. In the next section the impacts of globalization on education and culture will be highlighted and focused since these two areas give tremendous influence in the shaping of the Muslims world view and education.

2.2.3 Impacts on Culture

The International Institute of Islamic Thought / IIT (1988) points out that most of Moslem countries take westernization, lured by the successful example of the West and prompted by their Westernized advisers. IIT (1989, p. 46) states:

“Westernized Muslim leaders did not grasp the fact that their programs would sooner or later undermine the very foundations of the faith and culture of their subjects. The connection between the manifestations of Western productivity and power and the Western views on God and man; on life, nature, the world; and on time and history was too subtle for Muslims leaders to grasp or, in their hurry, to consider. A secular system of education was built that taught Western values and methods. Soon graduates who were ignorant of the Islamic legacy began to pour into society. The new graduates became suspicious of the majority of the guardians of the legacy, the ulama’, who were dogmatists, legalists, and literalists, who failed to distinguish between those justice verdicts (ahkaan) of the Qur’an and the Sunnah that could be discarded or dismissed, and those matters that are open to creative exercise of judgment (Ijtihad). The graduates’ suspicion of the guardians of the legacy increased and a gap began to develop within the ranks of the Ummah, dividing it into Westernizing secularizers and opponents of secularization”

Husaini (2006) supports IIT’s argument stating that the agents of Westernization attack everything either directly or indirectly. The perfection of the Qur’anic text, the prophet’s message, the veracity of the sunnah, the glories of the Muslims achievements in civilization and the comprehensiveness of the shari’ah are denigrated. Husaini (2006) argues that the purpose is to inject doubt into the Muslim’s confidence in themselves, in their Ummah and in their faith. This leads to undermining their Islamic consciousness and subvert their Islamic personality. This condition is worsened by the emergence of media in the globalization era promoting Western culture. Newspaper, books and magazines, radio and television, cinema and theater, records and tapes and street poster and neon signs bombarded them daily with such effects.

Bombarded by the alien Western culture and way of life through the media in the era of globalization, Muslims lost their integrity of Islamic culture. The unity of the Islamic style of life is shattered in their thought, in their own person, actions and their families. ‘Instead of raising themselves from their debasement to height of virtue and societal efficacy envisaged from them by Islam, Muslim men and women began to hanker after the manifestations of Western decade: gradually nudity and immorality of dress and make-up (tabarruj), economic independence aimed at individualistic license, egotistic pursuit of pleasure, and avoidance of duties imposed by family relationships.

Similar to this argument, some Western writers voice the same notion. For example, Giddens (1998, P. 33) in his groundbreaking book ‘The third way’, suggested that globalization is a complex range of process and events driven, primarily, by ‘…a mixture of political and economic influences’. It is interesting to note that globalization touches all people’s lives, transforming our social and institutional process, even in the ways in which we relate to other people and God. It is this latter perspective on globalization that is of most interest here, because as Giddens (1998, p. 33) so clearly pointed out, globalization is ‘…directly relevant to the rise of…the “new Individualism”…’

Duignan (2006) added that ‘it would seem that globalization, especially in secular and materialistic dimensions, is contributing to a more disengaged mode of existence for many people, especially in the developed world’. Taylor (1989, p. 500) relates this condition referring to ‘…empty life of its richness, depth, or meaning’. Duignan (2006) also posits that our isolationist and self-centered ways are causing us to grasp at more temporary and ultimately less fulfilling forms of engagement, and the gradual disengagement of the self from a sense of the collective can lead to the development of selective blindness for the plight of others less fortunate than ourselves, to the point where it can become at many levels of society. In fact, many contemporary secular Western societies are based on intense individualism (Sommerville, 2000).

2.2.4 Impacts on Education

It has been generally known that due to the colonialism, the intellectual and methodological decline of the Ummah becomes the core of Muslims’ malaise. In the modern era, this condition is worsened by the globalization, making it possible for the Western values to flourish in Muslims society through media and information technology. In this juncture the educational system is the breeding ground of the malaise. Schools and universities perpetuate the self-estrangement from Islam, from its legacy and from its style.

In higher education, example of the self-estrangement from Islamic legacy includes the opposition of revelation to reason (IIT, 1989). The dichotomy between revelation and reason might be the most devastating development in the intellectual history of the Ummah (ibid, 1989). This dichotomy has been experienced by such religions as Christian and Jews. Historically Christians and Jews had been ‘Hellenized’ for centuries under the aegis of this dichotomy. In the Islamic intellectual world, the dichotomy revelation and reason experienced by Christians and Jews might be equivalent to Al-Farabi’s proposition of the ‘battle of thought’ between philosophers and theologians (Mutakallimuun). Such logic continues to dominate the field of intellectual discussion in the modern era’s education. For instance, higher education separates the general science and Islamic science. Students are expected to master general science devoid of Islamic world view. Islamic teaching is only studied in the department of Islamic Science.

Another serious problem of education brought by globalization in Muslim countries is secularization. According to the view of IIT (1989), the process of the secularization in the education domain follow the following frameworks; 1) The educational system in Moslem countries is created to be a laboratory where Muslim youth are kneaded and cut, where their consciousness is molded into a caricature of the West. Accordingly the Muslim’s link with their natural curiosity to learn the legacy of their ancestors is stymied. Furthermore, their willingness to touch base with their heritage and to spring toward creative representation of Islam is blunted with the doubts and the deviation the educational system has injected into every recess of their consciousness; 2) college and universities has been more daring in advocating their un-Islamic theme. The secularist educational school has assumed tremendous proportion, elbowing out the Islamic system from the field; 3) The public fund is poured into secularized educational system.

3. Developing Lecturers Leadership Management and Leadership

The main challenge of higher education in Muslim countries today is not only teaching skills and elevating the competence but also ‘to promote the symbolic values such ; ethical importance, their constitutive role in developing essential concept s of social justice, beauty, truth power and so on’ (Could,2003, p. 19). Islam is rich of such values proposed by Could. As lecturers are the main actors in teaching and educating the students, they become the ‘avant-garde’ and cultivator of Islamic values to students. This is especially significant with regard to the challenge of globalization as explained in the previous section.

While the destructive impacts of globalization challenge higher education, lecturers are trapped in positioning themselves as merely ‘secular managers’. This results in another complicated problem in which many lecturers have insufficient understanding of performing their leadership function in the teaching and learning process. Instead, they view the teaching and learning process as deterministic and mechanistic system in which the teaching and learning process is often considered as merely the transfer of knowledge. Little attention is paid to use teaching and learning process for transferring the values. This paper argues that lecturers should balance their position as both leader and manager in order to be able to transfer the knowledge and Islamic values to students.

3.1 Leadership and Management Defined

Literally hundreds of books and thousands of articles have come out in the last few years on leadership and management. This constitutes how vital the subjects are. A number of experts say that leadership and management are the enabling art simply because ‘they enable all the other arts and professions to work’ (Covey, 2004). As part of the literature review of leadership theories, I gather definition from leading authors who described the differences between leadership and management (See table 1)

Author

Leadership

Management

Zaleznik (1977)

Leaders are concerned with what things mean to people.

Managers are concerned with how things get done.

Marriotti (1998)

Leaders are the architects.

Managers are the builders.

Bennis (1993)

Leaders are people who do the right things.

Managers are people who do things right.

Kuozes and Posner (1995)

Leadership has about it a kinesthetic feel, a sense of movement.

Managing is about handling things, about maintaining order, about organization and control.

Table 1: Differences between leadership and management proposed by leading authors

The definitions proposed by some leading authors above show that the underlining idea of leadership is ‘leading people’ while the idea of management is ‘control thing’. This is relevant to the definition leadership proposed by Covey (2004) as ‘communicating to people their worth and potential so clearly that they come to see it in themselves’. Covey (2004, p. 101) also said that

‘We can’t ‘lead’ things. In fact, it wasn’t until I turned over the management of my company to my son Stephen, and a team of people with strengths that compensated for my weaknesses that it really became profitable. You can’t lead inventories and cash flow and costs. You have to manage them. Why? Because things don’t have power and freedom to choose. Only people do. So you lead (empower) people. You manage and control things”.

Things that people can manage are among others; money, costs, information, time, structure, systems, processes, inventory, physical resources, facilities and tools. In terms of higher education such things as curriculum, syllabus, schedule, course design, lesson plan and so forth should be managed by lecturers while students should be led.

Covey’s definition explains that leadership is not the province of formal authority in an organization or company. Therefore, to cultivate the leadership talent and ability, Covey (2004) suggests that leadership influence should be governed by principles. When a person lives by them, her or his influence and moral authority increase and she or he is often given moral even greater moral authority.

The literature review on leadership and management reinforces that both of them are vital and that either one without the other is insufficient. Therefore, in the context of this paper, lecturers should develop both leadership and management skills and ability.

3.2 Leadership in Islam

The concept of Islamic leadership is rooted in the teaching of the Qur’an and example of the Prophet Muhammad. The Islamic concept of leadership first emerges from the Qur’anic verse that expressed Allah’s wish to appoint His vicegerent on earth soil as to maintain justice among the creations both human beings and jinns that would worship Him. On hearing this, the angels were shocked and inquired: “Do thou place therein one who will do harm therein and will shed blood, while we, we hymn Thy praise and sanctify thee…?” (QS. 2: 30). What these verses inferred is that Adam is the representative of Allah on earth who is to live, worships, and maintain justice among other human beings.

Muhammad in Islam, as the first leader of the Muslim community, is the prime example of a kind of personality that stood on its own merits. This is why his words, deeds and approval are taken as an ideal pattern and regarded as the Islamic tradition and was accepted as the leader of the Muslim society.

Muhammad is introduced in the Qur’an as Rasulullah (the messenger of God) and so are the other prophets. Their authority is based on two principles; 1) Receiving the divine message, 2) spreading the message and seeing that it is carried out. The authority of other Muslim leaders likewise is based on two principles; 1) to understand the message revealed to Muhammad and, 2) to spread it and see it is carried out.

The understanding of Islamic leadership cannot be separated from the understanding that Islam is socialistic, because the object of Islam is the totality of humanity (Ezzati, 1994). This constitutes that in Islam, the human face, man’s humanity and the entire humanity count. The truth cannot be the property of a person, persons, a group, groups, a race, a nation and cannot be monopolized. It belongs to everybody, to all creatures and to the entire humanity. The human mind or soul has no vision of a relation between man and his fellows greater or a nobler than that of intellectual intercourse, and certainly no vision of a world other than that in which any man may influence, determine, transform, or refashion his fellow men by argument or examples.

It is also believed that the Muslim community is the community of ‘amr ma’ruf nahi munkar, and thus leads humanity and deserves leadership. This duty is the duty of the community first and through it the duty of its members. The leadership thus basically belongs to the community and then to its members. This is why the prophet said; “All of you are leaders and are responsible for your leadership. The ruler is leader of his subjects, the man is a leader of his family, the woman is a leader and is responsible for her husband’s house and his offspring; and so all of you are leader and are responsible for your subjects” (Shahih Al-Bukhari No. 893, 7138).

Ezzati (1994) maintains that the logical consequence of Islamic theology, tradition, Qur’anic verses is that the concept of Islamic leadership bears the following features;

1. The concept of leadership must be harmonious with the doctrine of Tauhid.

2. God is the head of the Muslim community.

3. Leadership has been given to the Muslim community and to the Prophet as the divine trust.

4. Leadership is not a political power; it is a responsibility to provide security and peace for the Muslim society to enable it to fulfill its divine purpose and goal.

5. Leadership is closely associated and actually based on the doctrine of Amr ma’ruf nahi munkar (bidding the doing of good and forbidding the abominable).

6. Leadership is a social responsibility (wajib al-kafai) originally belongs to the community as a whole and the government and leaders simply represent the community.

7. Leadership is a responsibility in Islam started with Muhammad and his leadership was based in his risalah (his mission as the messenger of God) and his authority was purely accidental and not original).

8. Prophethood and Islamic leadership is the responsibility of spreading the word of God, leading and guiding society and teaching and educating it, so that it is able to fulfill the divine purpose.

9. Leadership in Islam cannot be monopolized by a group, a race, a nation, etc.

10. There is nothing which must be performed by religious leaders which cannot be done by ordinary people except those which need knowledge of Shari’ah and specialization in Islam.

11. Leadership is a responsibility not a position; it is associated with duties not with privileges. Leadership in Islam is not a symbolic institute nor is it associated with symbolism and symbols.

3.3 Framework for Developing Islamic Leadership and Management for Lectures

Lecturers cannot deny serving their leadership functions due to several reasons. First, globalization has promoted a number of values which are un-Islamic. Therefore it is the duty of the lecturers to challenge the negative forces of globalization by educating Islamic values to students. Second, referring to Ezzati’s opinion that Leadership is a social responsibility (wajib al-kafai) originally belonging to the community as a whole – and the government and leaders simply represent the community-, lecturers cannot get rid of this social responsibility. Fulfilling this responsibility manifests their duty in taking part in the process of amr ma’ruf nahi munkar. Third, lecturers work in educational institutions, meaning that their job is to educate, transferring not only the knowledge but also the values to students’ mind.

<p ￿

DEVELOPING LECTURERS’ ISLAMIC LEADERSHIP AND MANAGEMENT TO FACE THE CHALLENGE OF GLOBALIZATION

Endro Dwi Hatmanto, UMY

Paper presented in the International Seminar, IIUM, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 2009

Abstract

Globalization is a sword with two edges for higher education in Islamic countries. In one edge, globalization offers opportunity for lecturers and students to access, disseminate and communicate information and knowledge thanks to the advent of internet and information technology. On the other edge, however, the wide opportunity of information access causes the information overload. Much of the information contains values and worldviews which are alien to Islamic principles. Many scholars suggest that globalization is a complex range of process and events driven solely by a mixture of political and economic influence. It touches all of our lives – including educational domain-even in the ways in which human relates with God and other people. The example of major effects of globalization is the rise of secular and materialistic life and intense individualism. This leads to selfish and self-serving means which are often used to achieve ends that are inimical to Islamic education and values. Selfish and materialistic way of life can, in fact, become an addiction which might contribute to more widespread social malaise for Muslim society. It is not only individuals in society who can become addicted, or who contribute to these addictive process, a number of our societal agencies and institution, including higher education may also be part of the problem. While the destructive impacts of globalization challenge higher education, lecturers are trapped in positioning themselves as merely ‘secular managers’. This results in another complicated problem in which many lecturers have insufficient understanding of performing their leadership function in the teaching and learning process. Instead, they view the teaching and learning process as deterministic and mechanistic system in which the teaching and learning process is often considered as merely the transfer of knowledge. Little attention is paid to use teaching and learning process for transferring the values. The paper argues that to overcome this problem, lecturers should adopt both the concept of Islamic management and leadership in the teaching and learning process in higher education. In order to achieve the aim of the research, the library research is conducted. The theory of globalization and its negative impacts in the educational process in higher education will be explored. Then, the principles of Islamic management and leadership practiced and taught by the Prophet and Qur’an will be presented and analyzed. Having presented the concepts of the Islamic management and leadership, the paper attempts to offer the strategies to develop educational management and leadership in the teaching and learning process which can be adopted by lecturers. Covey’s framework for developing lecturers’ leadership and management will be used in this paper. The framework consists of modeling, path finding, aligning, and empowering.

Keywords: Globalization, management, leadership, Islamic management and leadership

All of you are leaders and are responsible for your leadership. The ruler is a leader of his subjects, the man is a leader of his family, the woman is a leader and is responsible for her husband’s house and his offspring; and so all of you are leader and are responsible for your subjects”

Shahih Al-Bukhari

1. Introduction

Lecturers at higher education are confronted by both internal and external challenge and expectations that make considerable demands on their time, expertise, energies and emotional well being. One of the biggest challenges is posed by the emergence of globalization.

In the Islamic countries including Indonesia, lecturer at higher education are increasingly being held responsible for both performance and compliance with Islamic ethical and moral standards in their educational practices.

While some lecturers may experience confusion, even frustration, in attempting to respond productively to the globalization challenges, many other lecturers feel used, even devalued, by the current emphasis on educational management values, strategies and practices in many educational organizations. In other words, many lecturers are faced with tension of the demands of ‘managerialism’ stressing on efficiency, productivity and accountability. On the contrary, the expectation of lecturers to position themselves as leaders being responsible for cultivating Islamic values in higher education is reduced, even annihilated.

In fact, at the end of the third millennium the challenges offered by globalization are mounting. While many scholars suggest that globalization is a complex range of process and events driven solely by a mixture of political and economic influence, globalization actually touches all of our lives – including educational domain-even in the ways in which human relates with God and other people. The example of major effects of globalization is the rise of secular and materialistic life and intense individualism. This leads to selfish and self-serving means which are often used to achieve ends that are inimical to Islamic education and values. Secular and materialistic way of life can, in fact, become an addiction which might contribute to more widespread social malaise for Muslim society. It is not only individuals in society who can become addicted, or who contribute to these addictive process, a number of our societal agencies and institution, including higher education may also be part of the problem.

Many lecturers at higher education are expected to develop ethical responsibility to optimize learning opportunities by creating learning environment that are Islamic, visionary, strategic, student centered and motivational. However, many lecturers are still trapped in the deterministic and mechanistic system of teaching and learning. Indeed this is due to the fanaticism in adopting the ‘managerialism’ approach in educational system. Using this system lectures regard educating as merely the transfer of knowledge.

This paper argues that facing the challenge of globalization, instead of being merely managers lecturers should perform their leadership functions in the teaching and learning process. This is to suggest that not only do lecturers transfer knowledge, but lecturers should also transfer the Islamic values.

This paper is written in the context of assisting lecturer to be both manager and leader in the milieu of educational process in the globalization era which is sensitive to the need for the sound Islamic ethical standards embodied in the teaching and learning process.

To achieve this aim, the paper is structured as follows. First, the theory of globalization and its negative impacts in the educational process in the Muslim society will be explored. Then, the principles of Islamic management and leadership practiced and taught by the Prophet and Qur’an will be presented and analyzed. Having presented the concepts of Islamic management and leadership, the paper attempts to offer strategies to develop Islamic educational management and leadership in the teaching and learning process which can be adopted by lecturers.

2. Globalization and Its Impact to Moslem Countries

2.1 Globalization: Its Definition and Its Multi-Dimensional Impacts.

Globalization can be defined as a catch-all term for the expansion of diverse forms of economic, political, and cultural activity beyond national borders (Calhoun, 2002). At the economic level, globalization involves the emergence of a complex system of multinational capitalism in which corporations conduct business and locate production at locations worldwide. This includes the development of a system of international finance capable of rapidly shifting large amounts of investment capital from one place to another, as economic or political condition dictates.

According to Calhoun (2002) economic globalization is closely tied to political developments that are intended to facilitate and control international trade. The emergence of the IMF (International Monetary Fund) as a regulator of international economic stability and the creation of a Word Trade Organization with sovereign authority over trade disputes among its members are prominent examples.

The impact of globalization in the economic dimension has produced a strong geographical division among countries that separates the powerful core industrial nations from semi-peripheral and peripheral nations. The core industrial nations include the United States, most of Western Europe, and Japan. The semi-peripheral nations comprise newly industrious countries, such as Mexico and Malaysia while the peripheral nations are those that primarily supply raw materials to the industrial nations, on terms largely determined by the multinational companies and their proxies.

Unfortunately, the economic geographical division constitutes the domination of countries with strong economy on the country with poor economy. Roskin et al (2000) argue that that due to globalization, economic growth is highly uneven since the key players are giant corporations and the core industrial countries. The third world countries remain peripheral. The consequence of the industrial countries’ domination over the world economy is that the economic growth becomes uneven. According to Roskin et al (2000) contrary to the core industrial countries which becomes prosperous, the peripheral countries become fall further behind.

Globalization also has a cultural dimension, ‘as international capitalism homogenizes consumer good and services’ (ibid, 2002). Ritzer (1993) describes this process by the term McDonaldization of society. Equally important in this context is the ongoing communication revolution, as the internet, phone services, and other means of international communication become ubiquitous and affordable-at least for those who are privileged enough to participate in the global economy. This raises a last dimension of globalization that touches simultaneously on cultural, economic, and political issues: the emergence of an international capitalist class whose culture, economic, and political allegiances are broadly defined by loyalty to and dependence on the system.

Globalization might bring benefits. According to Roskin et al (2000) with a largely free flow of trade, the world economy is growing as never before, especially in the third world. Poorer countries, some written off as basket cases, are stirring to life. More products, including previously expensive items, are produced in abundance and at low cost, enabling most of the world to enjoy VCRs and computers. Additionally, big, transnational corporations are proud to be able to design an item in one country, assemble it in a second country with components from a third, and market it in a fourth without the borders.

2.2 Impacts of Globalization to Moslem Countries

Prosperity promised by globalization does not necessarily bring peace (Ibid, 2000). Roskin points out that indeed, newly affluent countries often demand respect, resources, and sometimes territory. Roskin further gives an example of China. According to Roskin, as China got richer in the 1990s it defined its borders more grandly, reaching far out into the South and East China seas, where there is undersea oil.

The opponents of the Globalization often relate the globalization concept with the spreading of the Westernization and Americanization. By definition, Westernization and Americanization is projects that spread the Western and American values around the world. Gramcy (cited in Calhoun, 2002) coined this phenomenon as a cultural hegemony[1].

As the dominant power, economically and politically, America and Western countries attempt to spread their values to people around the world. Odom and Dujarric (2004) describes the domination of America around the world as ‘America’s inadvertent empire’. According to Odom and Dujarric (2004), the sources of America’s domination are military, demography, economy, university, science, media and mass culture. Through these domination of sources America manages to ‘colonize’ other countries economically, politically and culturally (ibid, 2004)

As a result, many nations attempts to fight against this form of cultural hegemony. The book entitled ‘Jihad and MacWord’ written by Barber (1995) shows how Muslims nations – and other nations – make effort to oppose the socialization of Western-capitalistic values to the Muslim countries.

In fact, globalization brings about a number of negative impacts on economy, politic, culture and morality, and education to Moslem society. In the next section the impacts of globalization on education and culture will be highlighted and focused since these two areas give tremendous influence in the shaping of the Muslims world view and education.

2.2.3 Impacts on Culture

The International Institute of Islamic Thought / IIT (1988) points out that most of Moslem countries take westernization, lured by the successful example of the West and prompted by their Westernized advisers. IIT (1989, p. 46) states:

“Westernized Muslim leaders did not grasp the fact that their programs would sooner or later undermine the very foundations of the faith and culture of their subjects. The connection between the manifestations of Western productivity and power and the Western views on God and man; on life, nature, the world; and on time and history was too subtle for Muslims leaders to grasp or, in their hurry, to consider. A secular system of education was built that taught Western values and methods. Soon graduates who were ignorant of the Islamic legacy began to pour into society. The new graduates became suspicious of the majority of the guardians of the legacy, the ulama’, who were dogmatists, legalists, and literalists, who failed to distinguish between those justice verdicts (ahkaan) of the Qur’an and the Sunnah that could be discarded or dismissed, and those matters that are open to creative exercise of judgment (Ijtihad). The graduates’ suspicion of the guardians of the legacy increased and a gap began to develop within the ranks of the Ummah, dividing it into Westernizing secularizers and opponents of secularization”

Husaini (2006) supports IIT’s argument stating that the agents of Westernization attack everything either directly or indirectly. The perfection of the Qur’anic text, the prophet’s message, the veracity of the sunnah, the glories of the Muslims achievements in civilization and the comprehensiveness of the shari’ah are denigrated. Husaini (2006) argues that the purpose is to inject doubt into the Muslim’s confidence in themselves, in their Ummah and in their faith. This leads to undermining their Islamic consciousness and subvert their Islamic personality. This condition is worsened by the emergence of media in the globalization era promoting Western culture. Newspaper, books and magazines, radio and television, cinema and theater, records and tapes and street poster and neon signs bombarded them daily with such effects.

Bombarded by the alien Western culture and way of life through the media in the era of globalization, Muslims lost their integrity of Islamic culture. The unity of the Islamic style of life is shattered in their thought, in their own person, actions and their families. ‘Instead of raising themselves from their debasement to height of virtue and societal efficacy envisaged from them by Islam, Muslim men and women began to hanker after the manifestations of Western decade: gradually nudity and immorality of dress and make-up (tabarruj), economic independence aimed at individualistic license, egotistic pursuit of pleasure, and avoidance of duties imposed by family relationships.

Similar to this argument, some Western writers voice the same notion. For example, Giddens (1998, P. 33) in his groundbreaking book ‘The third way’, suggested that globalization is a complex range of process and events driven, primarily, by ‘…a mixture of political and economic influences’. It is interesting to note that globalization touches all people’s lives, transforming our social and institutional process, even in the ways in which we relate to other people and God. It is this latter perspective on globalization that is of most interest here, because as Giddens (1998, p. 33) so clearly pointed out, globalization is ‘…directly relevant to the rise of…the “new Individualism”…’

Duignan (2006) added that ‘it would seem that globalization, especially in secular and materialistic dimensions, is contributing to a more disengaged mode of existence for many people, especially in the developed world’. Taylor (1989, p. 500) relates this condition referring to ‘…empty life of its richness, depth, or meaning’. Duignan (2006) also posits that our isolationist and self-centered ways are causing us to grasp at more temporary and ultimately less fulfilling forms of engagement, and the gradual disengagement of the self from a sense of the collective can lead to the development of selective blindness for the plight of others less fortunate than ourselves, to the point where it can become at many levels of society. In fact, many contemporary secular Western societies are based on intense individualism (Sommerville, 2000).

2.2.4 Impacts on Education

It has been generally known that due to the colonialism, the intellectual and methodological decline of the Ummah becomes the core of Muslims’ malaise. In the modern era, this condition is worsened by the globalization, making it possible for the Western values to flourish in Muslims society through media and information technology. In this juncture the educational system is the breeding ground of the malaise. Schools and universities perpetuate the self-estrangement from Islam, from its legacy and from its style.

In higher education, example of the self-estrangement from Islamic legacy includes the opposition of revelation to reason (IIT, 1989). The dichotomy between revelation and reason might be the most devastating development in the intellectual history of the Ummah (ibid, 1989). This dichotomy has been experienced by such religions as Christian and Jews. Historically Christians and Jews had been ‘Hellenized’ for centuries under the aegis of this dichotomy. In the Islamic intellectual world, the dichotomy revelation and reason experienced by Christians and Jews might be equivalent to Al-Farabi’s proposition of the ‘battle of thought’ between philosophers and theologians (Mutakallimuun). Such logic continues to dominate the field of intellectual discussion in the modern era’s education. For instance, higher education separates the general science and Islamic science. Students are expected to master general science devoid of Islamic world view. Islamic teaching is only studied in the department of Islamic Science.

Another serious problem of education brought by globalization in Muslim countries is secularization. According to the view of IIT (1989), the process of the secularization in the education domain follow the following frameworks; 1) The educational system in Moslem countries is created to be a laboratory where Muslim youth are kneaded and cut, where their consciousness is molded into a caricature of the West. Accordingly the Muslim’s link with their natural curiosity to learn the legacy of their ancestors is stymied. Furthermore, their willingness to touch base with their heritage and to spring toward creative representation of Islam is blunted with the doubts and the deviation the educational system has injected into every recess of their consciousness; 2) college and universities has been more daring in advocating their un-Islamic theme. The secularist educational school has assumed tremendous proportion, elbowing out the Islamic system from the field; 3) The public fund is poured into secularized educational system.

3. Developing Lecturers Leadership Management and Leadership

The main challenge of higher education in Muslim countries today is not only teaching skills and elevating the competence but also ‘to promote the symbolic values such ; ethical importance, their constitutive role in developing essential concept s of social justice, beauty, truth power and so on’ (Could,2003, p. 19). Islam is rich of such values proposed by Could. As lecturers are the main actors in teaching and educating the students, they become the ‘avant-garde’ and cultivator of Islamic values to students. This is especially significant with regard to the challenge of globalization as explained in the previous section.

While the destructive impacts of globalization challenge higher education, lecturers are trapped in positioning themselves as merely ‘secular managers’. This results in another complicated problem in which many lecturers have insufficient understanding of performing their leadership function in the teaching and learning process. Instead, they view the teaching and learning process as deterministic and mechanistic system in which the teaching and learning process is often considered as merely the transfer of knowledge. Little attention is paid to use teaching and learning process for transferring the values. This paper argues that lecturers should balance their position as both leader and manager in order to be able to transfer the knowledge and Islamic values to students.

3.1 Leadership and Management Defined

Literally hundreds of books and thousands of articles have come out in the last few years on leadership and management. This constitutes how vital the subjects are. A number of experts say that leadership and management are the enabling art simply because ‘they enable all the other arts and professions to work’ (Covey, 2004). As part of the literature review of leadership theories, I gather definition from leading authors who described the differences between leadership and management (See table 1)

Author

Leadership

Management

Zaleznik (1977)

Leaders are concerned with what things mean to people.

Managers are concerned with how things get done.

Marriotti (1998)

Leaders are the architects.

Managers are the builders.

Bennis (1993)

Leaders are people who do the right things.

Managers are people who do things right.

Kuozes and Posner (1995)

Leadership has about it a kinesthetic feel, a sense of movement.

Managing is about handling things, about maintaining order, about organization and control.

Table 1: Differences between leadership and management proposed by leading authors

The definitions proposed by some leading authors above show that the underlining idea of leadership is ‘leading people’ while the idea of management is ‘control thing’. This is relevant to the definition leadership proposed by Covey (2004) as ‘communicating to people their worth and potential so clearly that they come to see it in themselves’. Covey (2004, p. 101) also said that

‘We can’t ‘lead’ things. In fact, it wasn’t until I turned over the management of my company to my son Stephen, and a team of people with strengths that compensated for my weaknesses that it really became profitable. You can’t lead inventories and cash flow and costs. You have to manage them. Why? Because things don’t have power and freedom to choose. Only people do. So you lead (empower) people. You manage and control things”.

Things that people can manage are among others; money, costs, information, time, structure, systems, processes, inventory, physical resources, facilities and tools. In terms of higher education such things as curriculum, syllabus, schedule, course design, lesson plan and so forth should be managed by lecturers while students should be led.

Covey’s definition explains that leadership is not the province of formal authority in an organization or company. Therefore, to cultivate the leadership talent and ability, Covey (2004) suggests that leadership influence should be governed by principles. When a person lives by them, her or his influence and moral authority increase and she or he is often given moral even greater moral authority.

The literature review on leadership and management reinforces that both of them are vital and that either one without the other is insufficient. Therefore, in the context of this paper, lecturers should develop both leadership and management skills and ability.

3.2 Leadership in Islam

The concept of Islamic leadership is rooted in the teaching of the Qur’an and example of the Prophet Muhammad. The Islamic concept of leadership first emerges from the Qur’anic verse that expressed Allah’s wish to appoint His vicegerent on earth soil as to maintain justice among the creations both human beings and jinns that would worship Him. On hearing this, the angels were shocked and inquired: “Do thou place therein one who will do harm therein and will shed blood, while we, we hymn Thy praise and sanctify thee…?” (QS. 2: 30). What these verses inferred is that Adam is the representative of Allah on earth who is to live, worships, and maintain justice among other human beings.

Muhammad in Islam, as the first leader of the Muslim community, is the prime example of a kind of personality that stood on its own merits. This is why his words, deeds and approval are taken as an ideal pattern and regarded as the Islamic tradition and was accepted as the leader of the Muslim society.

Muhammad is introduced in the Qur’an as Rasulullah (the messenger of God) and so are the other prophets. Their authority is based on two principles; 1) Receiving the divine message, 2) spreading the message and seeing that it is carried out. The authority of other Muslim leaders likewise is based on two principles; 1) to understand the message revealed to Muhammad and, 2) to spread it and see it is carried out.

The understanding of Islamic leadership cannot be separated from the understanding that Islam is socialistic, because the object of Islam is the totality of humanity (Ezzati, 1994). This constitutes that in Islam, the human face, man’s humanity and the entire humanity count. The truth cannot be the property of a person, persons, a group, groups, a race, a nation and cannot be monopolized. It belongs to everybody, to all creatures and to the entire humanity. The human mind or soul has no vision of a relation between man and his fellows greater or a nobler than that of intellectual intercourse, and certainly no vision of a world other than that in which any man may influence, determine, transform, or refashion his fellow men by argument or examples.

It is also believed that the Muslim community is the community of ‘amr ma’ruf nahi munkar, and thus leads humanity and deserves leadership. This duty is the duty of the community first and through it the duty of its members. The leadership thus basically belongs to the community and then to its members. This is why the prophet said; “All of you are leaders and are responsible for your leadership. The ruler is leader of his subjects, the man is a leader of his family, the woman is a leader and is responsible for her husband’s house and his offspring; and so all of you are leader and are responsible for your subjects” (Shahih Al-Bukhari No. 893, 7138).

Ezzati (1994) maintains that the logical consequence of Islamic theology, tradition, Qur’anic verses is that the concept of Islamic leadership bears the following features;

1. The concept of leadership must be harmonious with the doctrine of Tauhid.

2. God is the head of the Muslim community.

3. Leadership has been given to the Muslim community and to the Prophet as the divine trust.

4. Leadership is not a political power; it is a responsibility to provide security and peace for the Muslim society to enable it to fulfill its divine purpose and goal.

5. Leadership is closely associated and actually based on the doctrine of Amr ma’ruf nahi munkar (bidding the doing of good and forbidding the abominable).

6. Leadership is a social responsibility (wajib al-kafai) originally belongs to the community as a whole and the government and leaders simply represent the community.

7. Leadership is a responsibility in Islam started with Muhammad and his leadership was based in his risalah (his mission as the messenger of God) and his authority was purely accidental and not original).

8. Prophethood and Islamic leadership is the responsibility of spreading the word of God, leading and guiding society and teaching and educating it, so that it is able to fulfill the divine purpose.

9. Leadership in Islam cannot be monopolized by a group, a race, a nation, etc.

10. There is nothing which must be performed by religious leaders which cannot be done by ordinary people except those which need knowledge of Shari’ah and specialization in Islam.

11. Leadership is a responsibility not a position; it is associated with duties not with privileges. Leadership in Islam is not a symbolic institute nor is it associated with symbolism and symbols.

3.3 Framework for Developing Islamic Leadership and Management for Lectures

Lecturers cannot deny serving their leadership functions due to several reasons. First, globalization has promoted a number of values which are un-Islamic. Therefore it is the duty of the lecturers to challenge the negative forces of globalization by educating Islamic values to students. Second, referring to Ezzati’s opinion that Leadership is a social responsibility (wajib al-kafai) originally belonging to the community as a whole – and the government and leaders simply represent the community-, lecturers cannot get rid of this social responsibility. Fulfilling this responsibility manifests their duty in taking part in the process of amr ma’ruf nahi munkar. Third, lecturers work in educational institutions, meaning that their job is to educate, transferring not only the knowledge but also the values to students’ mind.

<p c￿

DEVELOPING LECTURERS’ ISLAMIC LEADERSHIP AND MANAGEMENT TO FACE THE CHALLENGE OF GLOBALIZATION

Endro Dwi Hatmanto, UMY

Paper presented in the International Seminar, IIUM, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 2009

Abstract

Globalization is a sword with two edges for higher education in Islamic countries. In one edge, globalization offers opportunity for lecturers and students to access, disseminate and communicate information and knowledge thanks to the advent of internet and information technology. On the other edge, however, the wide opportunity of information access causes the information overload. Much of the information contains values and worldviews which are alien to Islamic principles. Many scholars suggest that globalization is a complex range of process and events driven solely by a mixture of political and economic influence. It touches all of our lives – including educational domain-even in the ways in which human relates with God and other people. The example of major effects of globalization is the rise of secular and materialistic life and intense individualism. This leads to selfish and self-serving means which are often used to achieve ends that are inimical to Islamic education and values. Selfish and materialistic way of life can, in fact, become an addiction which might contribute to more widespread social malaise for Muslim society. It is not only individuals in society who can become addicted, or who contribute to these addictive process, a number of our societal agencies and institution, including higher education may also be part of the problem. While the destructive impacts of globalization challenge higher education, lecturers are trapped in positioning themselves as merely ‘secular managers’. This results in another complicated problem in which many lecturers have insufficient understanding of performing their leadership function in the teaching and learning process. Instead, they view the teaching and learning process as deterministic and mechanistic system in which the teaching and learning process is often considered as merely the transfer of knowledge. Little attention is paid to use teaching and learning process for transferring the values. The paper argues that to overcome this problem, lecturers should adopt both the concept of Islamic management and leadership in the teaching and learning process in higher education. In order to achieve the aim of the research, the library research is conducted. The theory of globalization and its negative impacts in the educational process in higher education will be explored. Then, the principles of Islamic management and leadership practiced and taught by the Prophet and Qur’an will be presented and analyzed. Having presented the concepts of the Islamic management and leadership, the paper attempts to offer the strategies to develop educational management and leadership in the teaching and learning process which can be adopted by lecturers. Covey’s framework for developing lecturers’ leadership and management will be used in this paper. The framework consists of modeling, path finding, aligning, and empowering.

Keywords: Globalization, management, leadership, Islamic management and leadership

All of you are leaders and are responsible for your leadership. The ruler is a leader of his subjects, the man is a leader of his family, the woman is a leader and is responsible for her husband’s house and his offspring; and so all of you are leader and are responsible for your subjects”

Shahih Al-Bukhari

1. Introduction

Lecturers at higher education are confronted by both internal and external challenge and expectations that make considerable demands on their time, expertise, energies and emotional well being. One of the biggest challenges is posed by the emergence of globalization.

In the Islamic countries including Indonesia, lecturer at higher education are increasingly being held responsible for both performance and compliance with Islamic ethical and moral standards in their educational practices.

While some lecturers may experience confusion, even frustration, in attempting to respond productively to the globalization challenges, many other lecturers feel used, even devalued, by the current emphasis on educational management values, strategies and practices in many educational organizations. In other words, many lecturers are faced with tension of the demands of ‘managerialism’ stressing on efficiency, productivity and accountability. On the contrary, the expectation of lecturers to position themselves as leaders being responsible for cultivating Islamic values in higher education is reduced, even annihilated.

In fact, at the end of the third millennium the challenges offered by globalization are mounting. While many scholars suggest that globalization is a complex range of process and events driven solely by a mixture of political and economic influence, globalization actually touches all of our lives – including educational domain-even in the ways in which human relates with God and other people. The example of major effects of globalization is the rise of secular and materialistic life and intense individualism. This leads to selfish and self-serving means which are often used to achieve ends that are inimical to Islamic education and values. Secular and materialistic way of life can, in fact, become an addiction which might contribute to more widespread social malaise for Muslim society. It is not only individuals in society who can become addicted, or who contribute to these addictive process, a number of our societal agencies and institution, including higher education may also be part of the problem.

Many lecturers at higher education are expected to develop ethical responsibility to optimize learning opportunities by creating learning environment that are Islamic, visionary, strategic, student centered and motivational. However, many lecturers are still trapped in the deterministic and mechanistic system of teaching and learning. Indeed this is due to the fanaticism in adopting the ‘managerialism’ approach in educational system. Using this system lectures regard educating as merely the transfer of knowledge.

This paper argues that facing the challenge of globalization, instead of being merely managers lecturers should perform their leadership functions in the teaching and learning process. This is to suggest that not only do lecturers transfer knowledge, but lecturers should also transfer the Islamic values.

This paper is written in the context of assisting lecturer to be both manager and leader in the milieu of educational process in the globalization era which is sensitive to the need for the sound Islamic ethical standards embodied in the teaching and learning process.

To achieve this aim, the paper is structured as follows. First, the theory of globalization and its negative impacts in the educational process in the Muslim society will be explored. Then, the principles of Islamic management and leadership practiced and taught by the Prophet and Qur’an will be presented and analyzed. Having presented the concepts of Islamic management and leadership, the paper attempts to offer strategies to develop Islamic educational management and leadership in the teaching and learning process which can be adopted by lecturers.

2. Globalization and Its Impact to Moslem Countries

2.1 Globalization: Its Definition and Its Multi-Dimensional Impacts.

Globalization can be defined as a catch-all term for the expansion of diverse forms of economic, political, and cultural activity beyond national borders (Calhoun, 2002). At the economic level, globalization involves the emergence of a complex system of multinational capitalism in which corporations conduct business and locate production at locations worldwide. This includes the development of a system of international finance capable of rapidly shifting large amounts of investment capital from one place to another, as economic or political condition dictates.

According to Calhoun (2002) economic globalization is closely tied to political developments that are intended to facilitate and control international trade. The emergence of the IMF (International Monetary Fund) as a regulator of international economic stability and the creation of a Word Trade Organization with sovereign authority over trade disputes among its members are prominent examples.

The impact of globalization in the economic dimension has produced a strong geographical division among countries that separates the powerful core industrial nations from semi-peripheral and peripheral nations. The core industrial nations include the United States, most of Western Europe, and Japan. The semi-peripheral nations comprise newly industrious countries, such as Mexico and Malaysia while the peripheral nations are those that primarily supply raw materials to the industrial nations, on terms largely determined by the multinational companies and their proxies.

Unfortunately, the economic geographical division constitutes the domination of countries with strong economy on the country with poor economy. Roskin et al (2000) argue that that due to globalization, economic growth is highly uneven since the key players are giant corporations and the core industrial countries. The third world countries remain peripheral. The consequence of the industrial countries’ domination over the world economy is that the economic growth becomes uneven. According to Roskin et al (2000) contrary to the core industrial countries which becomes prosperous, the peripheral countries become fall further behind.

Globalization also has a cultural dimension, ‘as international capitalism homogenizes consumer good and services’ (ibid, 2002). Ritzer (1993) describes this process by the term McDonaldization of society. Equally important in this context is the ongoing communication revolution, as the internet, phone services, and other means of international communication become ubiquitous and affordable-at least for those who are privileged enough to participate in the global economy. This raises a last dimension of globalization that touches simultaneously on cultural, economic, and political issues: the emergence of an international capitalist class whose culture, economic, and political allegiances are broadly defined by loyalty to and dependence on the system.

Globalization might bring benefits. According to Roskin et al (2000) with a largely free flow of trade, the world economy is growing as never before, especially in the third world. Poorer countries, some written off as basket cases, are stirring to life. More products, including previously expensive items, are produced in abundance and at low cost, enabling most of the world to enjoy VCRs and computers. Additionally, big, transnational corporations are proud to be able to design an item in one country, assemble it in a second country with components from a third, and market it in a fourth without the borders.

2.2 Impacts of Globalization to Moslem Countries

Prosperity promised by globalization does not necessarily bring peace (Ibid, 2000). Roskin points out that indeed, newly affluent countries often demand respect, resources, and sometimes territory. Roskin further gives an example of China. According to Roskin, as China got richer in the 1990s it defined its borders more grandly, reaching far out into the South and East China seas, where there is undersea oil.

The opponents of the Globalization often relate the globalization concept with the spreading of the Westernization and Americanization. By definition, Westernization and Americanization is projects that spread the Western and American values around the world. Gramcy (cited in Calhoun, 2002) coined this phenomenon as a cultural hegemony[1].

As the dominant power, economically and politically, America and Western countries attempt to spread their values to people around the world. Odom and Dujarric (2004) describes the domination of America around the world as ‘America’s inadvertent empire’. According to Odom and Dujarric (2004), the sources of America’s domination are military, demography, economy, university, science, media and mass culture. Through these domination of sources America manages to ‘colonize’ other countries economically, politically and culturally (ibid, 2004)

As a result, many nations attempts to fight against this form of cultural hegemony. The book entitled ‘Jihad and MacWord’ written by Barber (1995) shows how Muslims nations – and other nations – make effort to oppose the socialization of Western-capitalistic values to the Muslim countries.

In fact, globalization brings about a number of negative impacts on economy, politic, culture and morality, and education to Moslem society. In the next section the impacts of globalization on education and culture will be highlighted and focused since these two areas give tremendous influence in the shaping of the Muslims world view and education.

2.2.3 Impacts on Culture

The International Institute of Islamic Thought / IIT (1988) points out that most of Moslem countries take westernization, lured by the successful example of the West and prompted by their Westernized advisers. IIT (1989, p. 46) states:

“Westernized Muslim leaders did not grasp the fact that their programs would sooner or later undermine the very foundations of the faith and culture of their subjects. The connection between the manifestations of Western productivity and power and the Western views on God and man; on life, nature, the world; and on time and history was too subtle for Muslims leaders to grasp or, in their hurry, to consider. A secular system of education was built that taught Western values and methods. Soon graduates who were ignorant of the Islamic legacy began to pour into society. The new graduates became suspicious of the majority of the guardians of the legacy, the ulama’, who were dogmatists, legalists, and literalists, who failed to distinguish between those justice verdicts (ahkaan) of the Qur’an and the Sunnah that could be discarded or dismissed, and those matters that are open to creative exercise of judgment (Ijtihad). The graduates’ suspicion of the guardians of the legacy increased and a gap began to develop within the ranks of the Ummah, dividing it into Westernizing secularizers and opponents of secularization”

Husaini (2006) supports IIT’s argument stating that the agents of Westernization attack everything either directly or indirectly. The perfection of the Qur’anic text, the prophet’s message, the veracity of the sunnah, the glories of the Muslims achievements in civilization and the comprehensiveness of the shari’ah are denigrated. Husaini (2006) argues that the purpose is to inject doubt into the Muslim’s confidence in themselves, in their Ummah and in their faith. This leads to undermining their Islamic consciousness and subvert their Islamic personality. This condition is worsened by the emergence of media in the globalization era promoting Western culture. Newspaper, books and magazines, radio and television, cinema and theater, records and tapes and street poster and neon signs bombarded them daily with such effects.

Bombarded by the alien Western culture and way of life through the media in the era of globalization, Muslims lost their integrity of Islamic culture. The unity of the Islamic style of life is shattered in their thought, in their own person, actions and their families. ‘Instead of raising themselves from their debasement to height of virtue and societal efficacy envisaged from them by Islam, Muslim men and women began to hanker after the manifestations of Western decade: gradually nudity and immorality of dress and make-up (tabarruj), economic independence aimed at individualistic license, egotistic pursuit of pleasure, and avoidance of duties imposed by family relationships.

Similar to this argument, some Western writers voice the same notion. For example, Giddens (1998, P. 33) in his groundbreaking book ‘The third way’, suggested that globalization is a complex range of process and events driven, primarily, by ‘…a mixture of political and economic influences’. It is interesting to note that globalization touches all people’s lives, transforming our social and institutional process, even in the ways in which we relate to other people and God. It is this latter perspective on globalization that is of most interest here, because as Giddens (1998, p. 33) so clearly pointed out, globalization is ‘…directly relevant to the rise of…the “new Individualism”…’

Duignan (2006) added that ‘it would seem that globalization, especially in secular and materialistic dimensions, is contributing to a more disengaged mode of existence for many people, especially in the developed world’. Taylor (1989, p. 500) relates this condition referring to ‘…empty life of its richness, depth, or meaning’. Duignan (2006) also posits that our isolationist and self-centered ways are causing us to grasp at more temporary and ultimately less fulfilling forms of engagement, and the gradual disengagement of the self from a sense of the collective can lead to the development of selective blindness for the plight of others less fortunate than ourselves, to the point where it can become at many levels of society. In fact, many contemporary secular Western societies are based on intense individualism (Sommerville, 2000).

2.2.4 Impacts on Education

It has been generally known that due to the colonialism, the intellectual and methodological decline of the Ummah becomes the core of Muslims’ malaise. In the modern era, this condition is worsened by the globalization, making it possible for the Western values to flourish in Muslims society through media and information technology. In this juncture the educational system is the breeding ground of the malaise. Schools and universities perpetuate the self-estrangement from Islam, from its legacy and from its style.

In higher education, example of the self-estrangement from Islamic legacy includes the opposition of revelation to reason (IIT, 1989). The dichotomy between revelation and reason might be the most devastating development in the intellectual history of the Ummah (ibid, 1989). This dichotomy has been experienced by such religions as Christian and Jews. Historically Christians and Jews had been ‘Hellenized’ for centuries under the aegis of this dichotomy. In the Islamic intellectual world, the dichotomy revelation and reason experienced by Christians and Jews might be equivalent to Al-Farabi’s proposition of the ‘battle of thought’ between philosophers and theologians (Mutakallimuun). Such logic continues to dominate the field of intellectual discussion in the modern era’s education. For instance, higher education separates the general science and Islamic science. Students are expected to master general science devoid of Islamic world view. Islamic teaching is only studied in the department of Islamic Science.

Another serious problem of education brought by globalization in Muslim countries is secularization. According to the view of IIT (1989), the process of the secularization in the education domain follow the following frameworks; 1) The educational system in Moslem countries is created to be a laboratory where Muslim youth are kneaded and cut, where their consciousness is molded into a caricature of the West. Accordingly the Muslim’s link with their natural curiosity to learn the legacy of their ancestors is stymied. Furthermore, their willingness to touch base with their heritage and to spring toward creative representation of Islam is blunted with the doubts and the deviation the educational system has injected into every recess of their consciousness; 2) college and universities has been more daring in advocating their un-Islamic theme. The secularist educational school has assumed tremendous proportion, elbowing out the Islamic system from the field; 3) The public fund is poured into secularized educational system.

3. Developing Lecturers Leadership Management and Leadership

The main challenge of higher education in Muslim countries today is not only teaching skills and elevating the competence but also ‘to promote the symbolic values such ; ethical importance, their constitutive role in developing essential concept s of social justice, beauty, truth power and so on’ (Could,2003, p. 19). Islam is rich of such values proposed by Could. As lecturers are the main actors in teaching and educating the students, they become the ‘avant-garde’ and cultivator of Islamic values to students. This is especially significant with regard to the challenge of globalization as explained in the previous section.

While the destructive impacts of globalization challenge higher education, lecturers are trapped in positioning themselves as merely ‘secular managers’. This results in another complicated problem in which many lecturers have insufficient understanding of performing their leadership function in the teaching and learning process. Instead, they view the teaching and learning process as deterministic and mechanistic system in which the teaching and learning process is often considered as merely the transfer of knowledge. Little attention is paid to use teaching and learning process for transferring the values. This paper argues that lecturers should balance their position as both leader and manager in order to be able to transfer the knowledge and Islamic values to students.

3.1 Leadership and Management Defined

Literally hundreds of books and thousands of articles have come out in the last few years on leadership and management. This constitutes how vital the subjects are. A number of experts say that leadership and management are the enabling art simply because ‘they enable all the other arts and professions to work’ (Covey, 2004). As part of the literature review of leadership theories, I gather definition from leading authors who described the differences between leadership and management (See table 1)

Author

Leadership

Management

Zaleznik (1977)

Leaders are concerned with what things mean to people.

Managers are concerned with how things get done.

Marriotti (1998)

Leaders are the architects.

Managers are the builders.

Bennis (1993)

Leaders are people who do the right things.

Managers are people who do things right.

Kuozes and Posner (1995)

Leadership has about it a kinesthetic feel, a sense of movement.

Managing is about handling things, about maintaining order, about organization and control.

Table 1: Differences between leadership and management proposed by leading authors

The definitions proposed by some leading authors above show that the underlining idea of leadership is ‘leading people’ while the idea of management is ‘control thing’. This is relevant to the definition leadership proposed by Covey (2004) as ‘communicating to people their worth and potential so clearly that they come to see it in themselves’. Covey (2004, p. 101) also said that

‘We can’t ‘lead’ things. In fact, it wasn’t until I turned over the management of my company to my son Stephen, and a team of people with strengths that compensated for my weaknesses that it really became profitable. You can’t lead inventories and cash flow and costs. You have to manage them. Why? Because things don’t have power and freedom to choose. Only people do. So you lead (empower) people. You manage and control things”.

Things that people can manage are among others; money, costs, information, time, structure, systems, processes, inventory, physical resources, facilities and tools. In terms of higher education such things as curriculum, syllabus, schedule, course design, lesson plan and so forth should be managed by lecturers while students should be led.

Covey’s definition explains that leadership is not the province of formal authority in an organization or company. Therefore, to cultivate the leadership talent and ability, Covey (2004) suggests that leadership influence should be governed by principles. When a person lives by them, her or his influence and moral authority increase and she or he is often given moral even greater moral authority.

The literature review on leadership and management reinforces that both of them are vital and that either one without the other is insufficient. Therefore, in the context of this paper, lecturers should develop both leadership and management skills and ability.

3.2 Leadership in Islam

The concept of Islamic leadership is rooted in the teaching of the Qur’an and example of the Prophet Muhammad. The Islamic concept of leadership first emerges from the Qur’anic verse that expressed Allah’s wish to appoint His vicegerent on earth soil as to maintain justice among the creations both human beings and jinns that would worship Him. On hearing this, the angels were shocked and inquired: “Do thou place therein one who will do harm therein and will shed blood, while we, we hymn Thy praise and sanctify thee…?” (QS. 2: 30). What these verses inferred is that Adam is the representative of Allah on earth who is to live, worships, and maintain justice among other human beings.

Muhammad in Islam, as the first leader of the Muslim community, is the prime example of a kind of personality that stood on its own merits. This is why his words, deeds and approval are taken as an ideal pattern and regarded as the Islamic tradition and was accepted as the leader of the Muslim society.

Muhammad is introduced in the Qur’an as Rasulullah (the messenger of God) and so are the other prophets. Their authority is based on two principles; 1) Receiving the divine message, 2) spreading the message and seeing that it is carried out. The authority of other Muslim leaders likewise is based on two principles; 1) to understand the message revealed to Muhammad and, 2) to spread it and see it is carried out.

The understanding of Islamic leadership cannot be separated from the understanding that Islam is socialistic, because the object of Islam is the totality of humanity (Ezzati, 1994). This constitutes that in Islam, the human face, man’s humanity and the entire humanity count. The truth cannot be the property of a person, persons, a group, groups, a race, a nation and cannot be monopolized. It belongs to everybody, to all creatures and to the entire humanity. The human mind or soul has no vision of a relation between man and his fellows greater or a nobler than that of intellectual intercourse, and certainly no vision of a world other than that in which any man may influence, determine, transform, or refashion his fellow men by argument or examples.

It is also believed that the Muslim community is the community of ‘amr ma’ruf nahi munkar, and thus leads humanity and deserves leadership. This duty is the duty of the community first and through it the duty of its members. The leadership thus basically belongs to the community and then to its members. This is why the prophet said; “All of you are leaders and are responsible for your leadership. The ruler is leader of his subjects, the man is a leader of his family, the woman is a leader and is responsible for her husband’s house and his offspring; and so all of you are leader and are responsible for your subjects” (Shahih Al-Bukhari No. 893, 7138).

Ezzati (1994) maintains that the logical consequence of Islamic theology, tradition, Qur’anic verses is that the concept of Islamic leadership bears the following features;

1. The concept of leadership must be harmonious with the doctrine of Tauhid.

2. God is the head of the Muslim community.

3. Leadership has been given to the Muslim community and to the Prophet as the divine trust.

4. Leadership is not a political power; it is a responsibility to provide security and peace for the Muslim society to enable it to fulfill its divine purpose and goal.

5. Leadership is closely associated and actually based on the doctrine of Amr ma’ruf nahi munkar (bidding the doing of good and forbidding the abominable).

6. Leadership is a social responsibility (wajib al-kafai) originally belongs to the community as a whole and the government and leaders simply represent the community.

7. Leadership is a responsibility in Islam started with Muhammad and his leadership was based in his risalah (his mission as the messenger of God) and his authority was purely accidental and not original).

8. Prophethood and Islamic leadership is the responsibility of spreading the word of God, leading and guiding society and teaching and educating it, so that it is able to fulfill the divine purpose.

9. Leadership in Islam cannot be monopolized by a group, a race, a nation, etc.

10. There is nothing which must be performed by religious leaders which cannot be done by ordinary people except those which need knowledge of Shari’ah and specialization in Islam.

11. Leadership is a responsibility not a position; it is associated with duties not with privileges. Leadership in Islam is not a symbolic institute nor is it associated with symbolism and symbols.

3.3 Framework for Developing Islamic Leadership and Management for Lectures

Lecturers cannot deny serving their leadership functions due to several reasons. First, globalization has promoted a number of values which are un-Islamic. Therefore it is the duty of the lecturers to challenge the negative forces of globalization by educating Islamic values to students. Second, referring to Ezzati’s opinion that Leadership is a social responsibility (wajib al-kafai) originally belonging to the community as a whole – and the government and leaders simply represent the community-, lecturers cannot get rid of this social responsibility. Fulfilling this responsibility manifests their duty in taking part in the process of amr ma’ruf nahi munkar. Third, lecturers work in educational institutions, meaning that their job is to educate, transferring not only the knowledge but also the values to students’ mind.

<p ￿

DEVELOPING LECTURERS’ ISLAMIC LEADERSHIP AND MANAGEMENT TO FACE THE CHALLENGE OF GLOBALIZATION

Endro Dwi Hatmanto, UMY

Paper presented in the International Seminar, IIUM, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 2009

Abstract

Globalization is a sword with two edges for higher education in Islamic countries. In one edge, globalization offers opportunity for lecturers and students to access, disseminate and communicate information and knowledge thanks to the advent of internet and information technology. On the other edge, however, the wide opportunity of information access causes the information overload. Much of the information contains values and worldviews which are alien to Islamic principles. Many scholars suggest that globalization is a complex range of process and events driven solely by a mixture of political and economic influence. It touches all of our lives – including educational domain-even in the ways in which human relates with God and other people. The example of major effects of globalization is the rise of secular and materialistic life and intense individualism. This leads to selfish and self-serving means which are often used to achieve ends that are inimical to Islamic education and values. Selfish and materialistic way of life can, in fact, become an addiction which might contribute to more widespread social malaise for Muslim society. It is not only individuals in society who can become addicted, or who contribute to these addictive process, a number of our societal agencies and institution, including higher education may also be part of the problem. While the destructive impacts of globalization challenge higher education, lecturers are trapped in positioning themselves as merely ‘secular managers’. This results in another complicated problem in which many lecturers have insufficient understanding of performing their leadership function in the teaching and learning process. Instead, they view the teaching and learning process as deterministic and mechanistic system in which the teaching and learning process is often considered as merely the transfer of knowledge. Little attention is paid to use teaching and learning process for transferring the values. The paper argues that to overcome this problem, lecturers should adopt both the concept of Islamic management and leadership in the teaching and learning process in higher education. In order to achieve the aim of the research, the library research is conducted. The theory of globalization and its negative impacts in the educational process in higher education will be explored. Then, the principles of Islamic management and leadership practiced and taught by the Prophet and Qur’an will be presented and analyzed. Having presented the concepts of the Islamic management and leadership, the paper attempts to offer the strategies to develop educational management and leadership in the teaching and learning process which can be adopted by lecturers. Covey’s framework for developing lecturers’ leadership and management will be used in this paper. The framework consists of modeling, path finding, aligning, and empowering.

Keywords: Globalization, management, leadership, Islamic management and leadership

All of you are leaders and are responsible for your leadership. The ruler is a leader of his subjects, the man is a leader of his family, the woman is a leader and is responsible for her husband’s house and his offspring; and so all of you are leader and are responsible for your subjects”

Shahih Al-Bukhari

1. Introduction

Lecturers at higher education are confronted by both internal and external challenge and expectations that make considerable demands on their time, expertise, energies and emotional well being. One of the biggest challenges is posed by the emergence of globalization.

In the Islamic countries including Indonesia, lecturer at higher education are increasingly being held responsible for both performance and compliance with Islamic ethical and moral standards in their educational practices.

While some lecturers may experience confusion, even frustration, in attempting to respond productively to the globalization challenges, many other lecturers feel used, even devalued, by the current emphasis on educational management values, strategies and practices in many educational organizations. In other words, many lecturers are faced with tension of the demands of ‘managerialism’ stressing on efficiency, productivity and accountability. On the contrary, the expectation of lecturers to position themselves as leaders being responsible for cultivating Islamic values in higher education is reduced, even annihilated.

In fact, at the end of the third millennium the challenges offered by globalization are mounting. While many scholars suggest that globalization is a complex range of process and events driven solely by a mixture of political and economic influence, globalization actually touches all of our lives – including educational domain-even in the ways in which human relates with God and other people. The example of major effects of globalization is the rise of secular and materialistic life and intense individualism. This leads to selfish and self-serving means which are often used to achieve ends that are inimical to Islamic education and values. Secular and materialistic way of life can, in fact, become an addiction which might contribute to more widespread social malaise for Muslim society. It is not only individuals in society who can become addicted, or who contribute to these addictive process, a number of our societal agencies and institution, including higher education may also be part of the problem.

Many lecturers at higher education are expected to develop ethical responsibility to optimize learning opportunities by creating learning environment that are Islamic, visionary, strategic, student centered and motivational. However, many lecturers are still trapped in the deterministic and mechanistic system of teaching and learning. Indeed this is due to the fanaticism in adopting the ‘managerialism’ approach in educational system. Using this system lectures regard educating as merely the transfer of knowledge.

This paper argues that facing the challenge of globalization, instead of being merely managers lecturers should perform their leadership functions in the teaching and learning process. This is to suggest that not only do lecturers transfer knowledge, but lecturers should also transfer the Islamic values.

This paper is written in the context of assisting lecturer to be both manager and leader in the milieu of educational process in the globalization era which is sensitive to the need for the sound Islamic ethical standards embodied in the teaching and learning process.

To achieve this aim, the paper is structured as follows. First, the theory of globalization and its negative impacts in the educational process in the Muslim society will be explored. Then, the principles of Islamic management and leadership practiced and taught by the Prophet and Qur’an will be presented and analyzed. Having presented the concepts of Islamic management and leadership, the paper attempts to offer strategies to develop Islamic educational management and leadership in the teaching and learning process which can be adopted by lecturers.

2. Globalization and Its Impact to Moslem Countries

2.1 Globalization: Its Definition and Its Multi-Dimensional Impacts.

Globalization can be defined as a catch-all term for the expansion of diverse forms of economic, political, and cultural activity beyond national borders (Calhoun, 2002). At the economic level, globalization involves the emergence of a complex system of multinational capitalism in which corporations conduct business and locate production at locations worldwide. This includes the development of a system of international finance capable of rapidly shifting large amounts of investment capital from one place to another, as economic or political condition dictates.

According to Calhoun (2002) economic globalization is closely tied to political developments that are intended to facilitate and control international trade. The emergence of the IMF (International Monetary Fund) as a regulator of international economic stability and the creation of a Word Trade Organization with sovereign authority over trade disputes among its members are prominent examples.

The impact of globalization in the economic dimension has produced a strong geographical division among countries that separates the powerful core industrial nations from semi-peripheral and peripheral nations. The core industrial nations include the United States, most of Western Europe, and Japan. The semi-peripheral nations comprise newly industrious countries, such as Mexico and Malaysia while the peripheral nations are those that primarily supply raw materials to the industrial nations, on terms largely determined by the multinational companies and their proxies.

Unfortunately, the economic geographical division constitutes the domination of countries with strong economy on the country with poor economy. Roskin et al (2000) argue that that due to globalization, economic growth is highly uneven since the key players are giant corporations and the core industrial countries. The third world countries remain peripheral. The consequence of the industrial countries’ domination over the world economy is that the economic growth becomes uneven. According to Roskin et al (2000) contrary to the core industrial countries which becomes prosperous, the peripheral countries become fall further behind.

Globalization also has a cultural dimension, ‘as international capitalism homogenizes consumer good and services’ (ibid, 2002). Ritzer (1993) describes this process by the term McDonaldization of society. Equally important in this context is the ongoing communication revolution, as the internet, phone services, and other means of international communication become ubiquitous and affordable-at least for those who are privileged enough to participate in the global economy. This raises a last dimension of globalization that touches simultaneously on cultural, economic, and political issues: the emergence of an international capitalist class whose culture, economic, and political allegiances are broadly defined by loyalty to and dependence on the system.

Globalization might bring benefits. According to Roskin et al (2000) with a largely free flow of trade, the world economy is growing as never before, especially in the third world. Poorer countries, some written off as basket cases, are stirring to life. More products, including previously expensive items, are produced in abundance and at low cost, enabling most of the world to enjoy VCRs and computers. Additionally, big, transnational corporations are proud to be able to design an item in one country, assemble it in a second country with components from a third, and market it in a fourth without the borders.

2.2 Impacts of Globalization to Moslem Countries

Prosperity promised by globalization does not necessarily bring peace (Ibid, 2000). Roskin points out that indeed, newly affluent countries often demand respect, resources, and sometimes territory. Roskin further gives an example of China. According to Roskin, as China got richer in the 1990s it defined its borders more grandly, reaching far out into the South and East China seas, where there is undersea oil.

The opponents of the Globalization often relate the globalization concept with the spreading of the Westernization and Americanization. By definition, Westernization and Americanization is projects that spread the Western and American values around the world. Gramcy (cited in Calhoun, 2002) coined this phenomenon as a cultural hegemony[1].

As the dominant power, economically and politically, America and Western countries attempt to spread their values to people around the world. Odom and Dujarric (2004) describes the domination of America around the world as ‘America’s inadvertent empire’. According to Odom and Dujarric (2004), the sources of America’s domination are military, demography, economy, university, science, media and mass culture. Through these domination of sources America manages to ‘colonize’ other countries economically, politically and culturally (ibid, 2004)

As a result, many nations attempts to fight against this form of cultural hegemony. The book entitled ‘Jihad and MacWord’ written by Barber (1995) shows how Muslims nations – and other nations – make effort to oppose the socialization of Western-capitalistic values to the Muslim countries.

In fact, globalization brings about a number of negative impacts on economy, politic, culture and morality, and education to Moslem society. In the next section the impacts of globalization on education and culture will be highlighted and focused since these two areas give tremendous influence in the shaping of the Muslims world view and education.

2.2.3 Impacts on Culture

The International Institute of Islamic Thought / IIT (1988) points out that most of Moslem countries take westernization, lured by the successful example of the West and prompted by their Westernized advisers. IIT (1989, p. 46) states:

“Westernized Muslim leaders did not grasp the fact that their programs would sooner or later undermine the very foundations of the faith and culture of their subjects. The connection between the manifestations of Western productivity and power and the Western views on God and man; on life, nature, the world; and on time and history was too subtle for Muslims leaders to grasp or, in their hurry, to consider. A secular system of education was built that taught Western values and methods. Soon graduates who were ignorant of the Islamic legacy began to pour into society. The new graduates became suspicious of the majority of the guardians of the legacy, the ulama’, who were dogmatists, legalists, and literalists, who failed to distinguish between those justice verdicts (ahkaan) of the Qur’an and the Sunnah that could be discarded or dismissed, and those matters that are open to creative exercise of judgment (Ijtihad). The graduates’ suspicion of the guardians of the legacy increased and a gap began to develop within the ranks of the Ummah, dividing it into Westernizing secularizers and opponents of secularization”

Husaini (2006) supports IIT’s argument stating that the agents of Westernization attack everything either directly or indirectly. The perfection of the Qur’anic text, the prophet’s message, the veracity of the sunnah, the glories of the Muslims achievements in civilization and the comprehensiveness of the shari’ah are denigrated. Husaini (2006) argues that the purpose is to inject doubt into the Muslim’s confidence in themselves, in their Ummah and in their faith. This leads to undermining their Islamic consciousness and subvert their Islamic personality. This condition is worsened by the emergence of media in the globalization era promoting Western culture. Newspaper, books and magazines, radio and television, cinema and theater, records and tapes and street poster and neon signs bombarded them daily with such effects.

Bombarded by the alien Western culture and way of life through the media in the era of globalization, Muslims lost their integrity of Islamic culture. The unity of the Islamic style of life is shattered in their thought, in their own person, actions and their families. ‘Instead of raising themselves from their debasement to height of virtue and societal efficacy envisaged from them by Islam, Muslim men and women began to hanker after the manifestations of Western decade: gradually nudity and immorality of dress and make-up (tabarruj), economic independence aimed at individualistic license, egotistic pursuit of pleasure, and avoidance of duties imposed by family relationships.

Similar to this argument, some Western writers voice the same notion. For example, Giddens (1998, P. 33) in his groundbreaking book ‘The third way’, suggested that globalization is a complex range of process and events driven, primarily, by ‘…a mixture of political and economic influences’. It is interesting to note that globalization touches all people’s lives, transforming our social and institutional process, even in the ways in which we relate to other people and God. It is this latter perspective on globalization that is of most interest here, because as Giddens (1998, p. 33) so clearly pointed out, globalization is ‘…directly relevant to the rise of…the “new Individualism”…’

Duignan (2006) added that ‘it would seem that globalization, especially in secular and materialistic dimensions, is contributing to a more disengaged mode of existence for many people, especially in the developed world’. Taylor (1989, p. 500) relates this condition referring to ‘…empty life of its richness, depth, or meaning’. Duignan (2006) also posits that our isolationist and self-centered ways are causing us to grasp at more temporary and ultimately less fulfilling forms of engagement, and the gradual disengagement of the self from a sense of the collective can lead to the development of selective blindness for the plight of others less fortunate than ourselves, to the point where it can become at many levels of society. In fact, many contemporary secular Western societies are based on intense individualism (Sommerville, 2000).

2.2.4 Impacts on Education

It has been generally known that due to the colonialism, the intellectual and methodological decline of the Ummah becomes the core of Muslims’ malaise. In the modern era, this condition is worsened by the globalization, making it possible for the Western values to flourish in Muslims society through media and information technology. In this juncture the educational system is the breeding ground of the malaise. Schools and universities perpetuate the self-estrangement from Islam, from its legacy and from its style.

In higher education, example of the self-estrangement from Islamic legacy includes the opposition of revelation to reason (IIT, 1989). The dichotomy between revelation and reason might be the most devastating development in the intellectual history of the Ummah (ibid, 1989). This dichotomy has been experienced by such religions as Christian and Jews. Historically Christians and Jews had been ‘Hellenized’ for centuries under the aegis of this dichotomy. In the Islamic intellectual world, the dichotomy revelation and reason experienced by Christians and Jews might be equivalent to Al-Farabi’s proposition of the ‘battle of thought’ between philosophers and theologians (Mutakallimuun). Such logic continues to dominate the field of intellectual discussion in the modern era’s education. For instance, higher education separates the general science and Islamic science. Students are expected to master general science devoid of Islamic world view. Islamic teaching is only studied in the department of Islamic Science.

Another serious problem of education brought by globalization in Muslim countries is secularization. According to the view of IIT (1989), the process of the secularization in the education domain follow the following frameworks; 1) The educational system in Moslem countries is created to be a laboratory where Muslim youth are kneaded and cut, where their consciousness is molded into a caricature of the West. Accordingly the Muslim’s link with their natural curiosity to learn the legacy of their ancestors is stymied. Furthermore, their willingness to touch base with their heritage and to spring toward creative representation of Islam is blunted with the doubts and the deviation the educational system has injected into every recess of their consciousness; 2) college and universities has been more daring in advocating their un-Islamic theme. The secularist educational school has assumed tremendous proportion, elbowing out the Islamic system from the field; 3) The public fund is poured into secularized educational system.

3. Developing Lecturers Leadership Management and Leadership

The main challenge of higher education in Muslim countries today is not only teaching skills and elevating the competence but also ‘to promote the symbolic values such ; ethical importance, their constitutive role in developing essential concept s of social justice, beauty, truth power and so on’ (Could,2003, p. 19). Islam is rich of such values proposed by Could. As lecturers are the main actors in teaching and educating the students, they become the ‘avant-garde’ and cultivator of Islamic values to students. This is especially significant with regard to the challenge of globalization as explained in the previous section.

While the destructive impacts of globalization challenge higher education, lecturers are trapped in positioning themselves as merely ‘secular managers’. This results in another complicated problem in which many lecturers have insufficient understanding of performing their leadership function in the teaching and learning process. Instead, they view the teaching and learning process as deterministic and mechanistic system in which the teaching and learning process is often considered as merely the transfer of knowledge. Little attention is paid to use teaching and learning process for transferring the values. This paper argues that lecturers should balance their position as both leader and manager in order to be able to transfer the knowledge and Islamic values to students.

3.1 Leadership and Management Defined

Literally hundreds of books and thousands of articles have come out in the last few years on leadership and management. This constitutes how vital the subjects are. A number of experts say that leadership and management are the enabling art simply because ‘they enable all the other arts and professions to work’ (Covey, 2004). As part of the literature review of leadership theories, I gather definition from leading authors who described the differences between leadership and management (See table 1)

Author

Leadership

Management

Zaleznik (1977)

Leaders are concerned with what things mean to people.

Managers are concerned with how things get done.

Marriotti (1998)

Leaders are the architects.

Managers are the builders.

Bennis (1993)

Leaders are people who do the right things.

Managers are people who do things right.

Kuozes and Posner (1995)

Leadership has about it a kinesthetic feel, a sense of movement.

Managing is about handling things, about maintaining order, about organization and control.

Table 1: Differences between leadership and management proposed by leading authors

The definitions proposed by some leading authors above show that the underlining idea of leadership is ‘leading people’ while the idea of management is ‘control thing’. This is relevant to the definition leadership proposed by Covey (2004) as ‘communicating to people their worth and potential so clearly that they come to see it in themselves’. Covey (2004, p. 101) also said that

‘We can’t ‘lead’ things. In fact, it wasn’t until I turned over the management of my company to my son Stephen, and a team of people with strengths that compensated for my weaknesses that it really became profitable. You can’t lead inventories and cash flow and costs. You have to manage them. Why? Because things don’t have power and freedom to choose. Only people do. So you lead (empower) people. You manage and control things”.

Things that people can manage are among others; money, costs, information, time, structure, systems, processes, inventory, physical resources, facilities and tools. In terms of higher education such things as curriculum, syllabus, schedule, course design, lesson plan and so forth should be managed by lecturers while students should be led.

Covey’s definition explains that leadership is not the province of formal authority in an organization or company. Therefore, to cultivate the leadership talent and ability, Covey (2004) suggests that leadership influence should be governed by principles. When a person lives by them, her or his influence and moral authority increase and she or he is often given moral even greater moral authority.

The literature review on leadership and management reinforces that both of them are vital and that either one without the other is insufficient. Therefore, in the context of this paper, lecturers should develop both leadership and management skills and ability.

3.2 Leadership in Islam

The concept of Islamic leadership is rooted in the teaching of the Qur’an and example of the Prophet Muhammad. The Islamic concept of leadership first emerges from the Qur’anic verse that expressed Allah’s wish to appoint His vicegerent on earth soil as to maintain justice among the creations both human beings and jinns that would worship Him. On hearing this, the angels were shocked and inquired: “Do thou place therein one who will do harm therein and will shed blood, while we, we hymn Thy praise and sanctify thee…?” (QS. 2: 30). What these verses inferred is that Adam is the representative of Allah on earth who is to live, worships, and maintain justice among other human beings.

Muhammad in Islam, as the first leader of the Muslim community, is the prime example of a kind of personality that stood on its own merits. This is why his words, deeds and approval are taken as an ideal pattern and regarded as the Islamic tradition and was accepted as the leader of the Muslim society.

Muhammad is introduced in the Qur’an as Rasulullah (the messenger of God) and so are the other prophets. Their authority is based on two principles; 1) Receiving the divine message, 2) spreading the message and seeing that it is carried out. The authority of other Muslim leaders likewise is based on two principles; 1) to understand the message revealed to Muhammad and, 2) to spread it and see it is carried out.

The understanding of Islamic leadership cannot be separated from the understanding that Islam is socialistic, because the object of Islam is the totality of humanity (Ezzati, 1994). This constitutes that in Islam, the human face, man’s humanity and the entire humanity count. The truth cannot be the property of a person, persons, a group, groups, a race, a nation and cannot be monopolized. It belongs to everybody, to all creatures and to the entire humanity. The human mind or soul has no vision of a relation between man and his fellows greater or a nobler than that of intellectual intercourse, and certainly no vision of a world other than that in which any man may influence, determine, transform, or refashion his fellow men by argument or examples.

It is also believed that the Muslim community is the community of ‘amr ma’ruf nahi munkar, and thus leads humanity and deserves leadership. This duty is the duty of the community first and through it the duty of its members. The leadership thus basically belongs to the community and then to its members. This is why the prophet said; “All of you are leaders and are responsible for your leadership. The ruler is leader of his subjects, the man is a leader of his family, the woman is a leader and is responsible for her husband’s house and his offspring; and so all of you are leader and are responsible for your subjects” (Shahih Al-Bukhari No. 893, 7138).

Ezzati (1994) maintains that the logical consequence of Islamic theology, tradition, Qur’anic verses is that the concept of Islamic leadership bears the following features;

1. The concept of leadership must be harmonious with the doctrine of Tauhid.

2. God is the head of the Muslim community.

3. Leadership has been given to the Muslim community and to the Prophet as the divine trust.

4. Leadership is not a political power; it is a responsibility to provide security and peace for the Muslim society to enable it to fulfill its divine purpose and goal.

5. Leadership is closely associated and actually based on the doctrine of Amr ma’ruf nahi munkar (bidding the doing of good and forbidding the abominable).

6. Leadership is a social responsibility (wajib al-kafai) originally belongs to the community as a whole and the government and leaders simply represent the community.

7. Leadership is a responsibility in Islam started with Muhammad and his leadership was based in his risalah (his mission as the messenger of God) and his authority was purely accidental and not original).

8. Prophethood and Islamic leadership is the responsibility of spreading the word of God, leading and guiding society and teaching and educating it, so that it is able to fulfill the divine purpose.

9. Leadership in Islam cannot be monopolized by a group, a race, a nation, etc.

10. There is nothing which must be performed by religious leaders which cannot be done by ordinary people except those which need knowledge of Shari’ah and specialization in Islam.

11. Leadership is a responsibility not a position; it is associated with duties not with privileges. Leadership in Islam is not a symbolic institute nor is it associated with symbolism and symbols.

3.3 Framework for Developing Islamic Leadership and Management for Lectures

Lecturers cannot deny serving their leadership functions due to several reasons. First, globalization has promoted a number of values which are un-Islamic. Therefore it is the duty of the lecturers to challenge the negative forces of globalization by educating Islamic values to students. Second, referring to Ezzati’s opinion that Leadership is a social responsibility (wajib al-kafai) originally belonging to the community as a whole – and the government and leaders simply represent the community-, lecturers cannot get rid of this social responsibility. Fulfilling this responsibility manifests their duty in taking part in the process of amr ma’ruf nahi munkar. Third, lecturers work in educational institutions, meaning that their job is to educate, transferring not only the knowledge but also the values to students’ mind.

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DEVELOPING LECTURERS’ ISLAMIC LEADERSHIP AND MANAGEMENT TO FACE THE CHALLENGE OF GLOBALIZATION

Endro Dwi Hatmanto, UMY

Paper presented in the International Seminar, IIUM, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 2009

Abstract

Globalization is a sword with two edges for higher education in Islamic countries. In one edge, globalization offers opportunity for lecturers and students to access, disseminate and communicate information and knowledge thanks to the advent of internet and information technology. On the other edge, however, the wide opportunity of information access causes the information overload. Much of the information contains values and worldviews which are alien to Islamic principles. Many scholars suggest that globalization is a complex range of process and events driven solely by a mixture of political and economic influence. It touches all of our lives – including educational domain-even in the ways in which human relates with God and other people. The example of major effects of globalization is the rise of secular and materialistic life and intense individualism. This leads to selfish and self-serving means which are often used to achieve ends that are inimical to Islamic education and values. Selfish and materialistic way of life can, in fact, become an addiction which might contribute to more widespread social malaise for Muslim society. It is not only individuals in society who can become addicted, or who contribute to these addictive process, a number of our societal agencies and institution, including higher education may also be part of the problem. While the destructive impacts of globalization challenge higher education, lecturers are trapped in positioning themselves as merely ‘secular managers’. This results in another complicated problem in which many lecturers have insufficient understanding of performing their leadership function in the teaching and learning process. Instead, they view the teaching and learning process as deterministic and mechanistic system in which the teaching and learning process is often considered as merely the transfer of knowledge. Little attention is paid to use teaching and learning process for transferring the values. The paper argues that to overcome this problem, lecturers should adopt both the concept of Islamic management and leadership in the teaching and learning process in higher education. In order to achieve the aim of the research, the library research is conducted. The theory of globalization and its negative impacts in the educational process in higher education will be explored. Then, the principles of Islamic management and leadership practiced and taught by the Prophet and Qur’an will be presented and analyzed. Having presented the concepts of the Islamic management and leadership, the paper attempts to offer the strategies to develop educational management and leadership in the teaching and learning process which can be adopted by lecturers. Covey’s framework for developing lecturers’ leadership and management will be used in this paper. The framework consists of modeling, path finding, aligning, and empowering.

Keywords: Globalization, management, leadership, Islamic management and leadership

All of you are leaders and are responsible for your leadership. The ruler is a leader of his subjects, the man is a leader of his family, the woman is a leader and is responsible for her husband’s house and his offspring; and so all of you are leader and are responsible for your subjects”

Shahih Al-Bukhari

1. Introduction

Lecturers at higher education are confronted by both internal and external challenge and expectations that make considerable demands on their time, expertise, energies and emotional well being. One of the biggest challenges is posed by the emergence of globalization.

In the Islamic countries including Indonesia, lecturer at higher education are increasingly being held responsible for both performance and compliance with Islamic ethical and moral standards in their educational practices.

While some lecturers may experience confusion, even frustration, in attempting to respond productively to the globalization challenges, many other lecturers feel used, even devalued, by the current emphasis on educational management values, strategies and practices in many educational organizations. In other words, many lecturers are faced with tension of the demands of ‘managerialism’ stressing on efficiency, productivity and accountability. On the contrary, the expectation of lecturers to position themselves as leaders being responsible for cultivating Islamic values in higher education is reduced, even annihilated.

In fact, at the end of the third millennium the challenges offered by globalization are mounting. While many scholars suggest that globalization is a complex range of process and events driven solely by a mixture of political and economic influence, globalization actually touches all of our lives – including educational domain-even in the ways in which human relates with God and other people. The example of major effects of globalization is the rise of secular and materialistic life and intense individualism. This leads to selfish and self-serving means which are often used to achieve ends that are inimical to Islamic education and values. Secular and materialistic way of life can, in fact, become an addiction which might contribute to more widespread social malaise for Muslim society. It is not only individuals in society who can become addicted, or who contribute to these addictive process, a number of our societal agencies and institution, including higher education may also be part of the problem.

Many lecturers at higher education are expected to develop ethical responsibility to optimize learning opportunities by creating learning environment that are Islamic, visionary, strategic, student centered and motivational. However, many lecturers are still trapped in the deterministic and mechanistic system of teaching and learning. Indeed this is due to the fanaticism in adopting the ‘managerialism’ approach in educational system. Using this system lectures regard educating as merely the transfer of knowledge.

This paper argues that facing the challenge of globalization, instead of being merely managers lecturers should perform their leadership functions in the teaching and learning process. This is to suggest that not only do lecturers transfer knowledge, but lecturers should also transfer the Islamic values.

This paper is written in the context of assisting lecturer to be both manager and leader in the milieu of educational process in the globalization era which is sensitive to the need for the sound Islamic ethical standards embodied in the teaching and learning process.

To achieve this aim, the paper is structured as follows. First, the theory of globalization and its negative impacts in the educational process in the Muslim society will be explored. Then, the principles of Islamic management and leadership practiced and taught by the Prophet and Qur’an will be presented and analyzed. Having presented the concepts of Islamic management and leadership, the paper attempts to offer strategies to develop Islamic educational management and leadership in the teaching and learning process which can be adopted by lecturers.

2. Globalization and Its Impact to Moslem Countries

2.1 Globalization: Its Definition and Its Multi-Dimensional Impacts.

Globalization can be defined as a catch-all term for the expansion of diverse forms of economic, political, and cultural activity beyond national borders (Calhoun, 2002). At the economic level, globalization involves the emergence of a complex system of multinational capitalism in which corporations conduct business and locate production at locations worldwide. This includes the development of a system of international finance capable of rapidly shifting large amounts of investment capital from one place to another, as economic or political condition dictates.

According to Calhoun (2002) economic globalization is closely tied to political developments that are intended to facilitate and control international trade. The emergence of the IMF (International Monetary Fund) as a regulator of international economic stability and the creation of a Word Trade Organization with sovereign authority over trade disputes among its members are prominent examples.

The impact of globalization in the economic dimension has produced a strong geographical division among countries that separates the powerful core industrial nations from semi-peripheral and peripheral nations. The core industrial nations include the United States, most of Western Europe, and Japan. The semi-peripheral nations comprise newly industrious countries, such as Mexico and Malaysia while the peripheral nations are those that primarily supply raw materials to the industrial nations, on terms largely determined by the multinational companies and their proxies.

Unfortunately, the economic geographical division constitutes the domination of countries with strong economy on the country with poor economy. Roskin et al (2000) argue that that due to globalization, economic growth is highly uneven since the key players are giant corporations and the core industrial countries. The third world countries remain peripheral. The consequence of the industrial countries’ domination over the world economy is that the economic growth becomes uneven. According to Roskin et al (2000) contrary to the core industrial countries which becomes prosperous, the peripheral countries become fall further behind.

Globalization also has a cultural dimension, ‘as international capitalism homogenizes consumer good and services’ (ibid, 2002). Ritzer (1993) describes this process by the term McDonaldization of society. Equally important in this context is the ongoing communication revolution, as the internet, phone services, and other means of international communication become ubiquitous and affordable-at least for those who are privileged enough to participate in the global economy. This raises a last dimension of globalization that touches simultaneously on cultural, economic, and political issues: the emergence of an international capitalist class whose culture, economic, and political allegiances are broadly defined by loyalty to and dependence on the system.

Globalization might bring benefits. According to Roskin et al (2000) with a largely free flow of trade, the world economy is growing as never before, especially in the third world. Poorer countries, some written off as basket cases, are stirring to life. More products, including previously expensive items, are produced in abundance and at low cost, enabling most of the world to enjoy VCRs and computers. Additionally, big, transnational corporations are proud to be able to design an item in one country, assemble it in a second country with components from a third, and market it in a fourth without the borders.

2.2 Impacts of Globalization to Moslem Countries

Prosperity promised by globalization does not necessarily bring peace (Ibid, 2000). Roskin points out that indeed, newly affluent countries often demand respect, resources, and sometimes territory. Roskin further gives an example of China. According to Roskin, as China got richer in the 1990s it defined its borders more grandly, reaching far out into the South and East China seas, where there is undersea oil.

The opponents of the Globalization often relate the globalization concept with the spreading of the Westernization and Americanization. By definition, Westernization and Americanization is projects that spread the Western and American values around the world. Gramcy (cited in Calhoun, 2002) coined this phenomenon as a cultural hegemony[1].

As the dominant power, economically and politically, America and Western countries attempt to spread their values to people around the world. Odom and Dujarric (2004) describes the domination of America around the world as ‘America’s inadvertent empire’. According to Odom and Dujarric (2004), the sources of America’s domination are military, demography, economy, university, science, media and mass culture. Through these domination of sources America manages to ‘colonize’ other countries economically, politically and culturally (ibid, 2004)

As a result, many nations attempts to fight against this form of cultural hegemony. The book entitled ‘Jihad and MacWord’ written by Barber (1995) shows how Muslims nations – and other nations – make effort to oppose the socialization of Western-capitalistic values to the Muslim countries.

In fact, globalization brings about a number of negative impacts on economy, politic, culture and morality, and education to Moslem society. In the next section the impacts of globalization on education and culture will be highlighted and focused since these two areas give tremendous influence in the shaping of the Muslims world view and education.

2.2.3 Impacts on Culture

The International Institute of Islamic Thought / IIT (1988) points out that most of Moslem countries take westernization, lured by the successful example of the West and prompted by their Westernized advisers. IIT (1989, p. 46) states:

“Westernized Muslim leaders did not grasp the fact that their programs would sooner or later undermine the very foundations of the faith and culture of their subjects. The connection between the manifestations of Western productivity and power and the Western views on God and man; on life, nature, the world; and on time and history was too subtle for Muslims leaders to grasp or, in their hurry, to consider. A secular system of education was built that taught Western values and methods. Soon graduates who were ignorant of the Islamic legacy began to pour into society. The new graduates became suspicious of the majority of the guardians of the legacy, the ulama’, who were dogmatists, legalists, and literalists, who failed to distinguish between those justice verdicts (ahkaan) of the Qur’an and the Sunnah that could be discarded or dismissed, and those matters that are open to creative exercise of judgment (Ijtihad). The graduates’ suspicion of the guardians of the legacy increased and a gap began to develop within the ranks of the Ummah, dividing it into Westernizing secularizers and opponents of secularization”

Husaini (2006) supports IIT’s argument stating that the agents of Westernization attack everything either directly or indirectly. The perfection of the Qur’anic text, the prophet’s message, the veracity of the sunnah, the glories of the Muslims achievements in civilization and the comprehensiveness of the shari’ah are denigrated. Husaini (2006) argues that the purpose is to inject doubt into the Muslim’s confidence in themselves, in their Ummah and in their faith. This leads to undermining their Islamic consciousness and subvert their Islamic personality. This condition is worsened by the emergence of media in the globalization era promoting Western culture. Newspaper, books and magazines, radio and television, cinema and theater, records and tapes and street poster and neon signs bombarded them daily with such effects.

Bombarded by the alien Western culture and way of life through the media in the era of globalization, Muslims lost their integrity of Islamic culture. The unity of the Islamic style of life is shattered in their thought, in their own person, actions and their families. ‘Instead of raising themselves from their debasement to height of virtue and societal efficacy envisaged from them by Islam, Muslim men and women began to hanker after the manifestations of Western decade: gradually nudity and immorality of dress and make-up (tabarruj), economic independence aimed at individualistic license, egotistic pursuit of pleasure, and avoidance of duties imposed by family relationships.

Similar to this argument, some Western writers voice the same notion. For example, Giddens (1998, P. 33) in his groundbreaking book ‘The third way’, suggested that globalization is a complex range of process and events driven, primarily, by ‘…a mixture of political and economic influences’. It is interesting to note that globalization touches all people’s lives, transforming our social and institutional process, even in the ways in which we relate to other people and God. It is this latter perspective on globalization that is of most interest here, because as Giddens (1998, p. 33) so clearly pointed out, globalization is ‘…directly relevant to the rise of…the “new Individualism”…’

Duignan (2006) added that ‘it would seem that globalization, especially in secular and materialistic dimensions, is contributing to a more disengaged mode of existence for many people, especially in the developed world’. Taylor (1989, p. 500) relates this condition referring to ‘…empty life of its richness, depth, or meaning’. Duignan (2006) also posits that our isolationist and self-centered ways are causing us to grasp at more temporary and ultimately less fulfilling forms of engagement, and the gradual disengagement of the self from a sense of the collective can lead to the development of selective blindness for the plight of others less fortunate than ourselves, to the point where it can become at many levels of society. In fact, many contemporary secular Western societies are based on intense individualism (Sommerville, 2000).

2.2.4 Impacts on Education

It has been generally known that due to the colonialism, the intellectual and methodological decline of the Ummah becomes the core of Muslims’ malaise. In the modern era, this condition is worsened by the globalization, making it possible for the Western values to flourish in Muslims society through media and information technology. In this juncture the educational system is the breeding ground of the malaise. Schools and universities perpetuate the self-estrangement from Islam, from its legacy and from its style.

In higher education, example of the self-estrangement from Islamic legacy includes the opposition of revelation to reason (IIT, 1989). The dichotomy between revelation and reason might be the most devastating development in the intellectual history of the Ummah (ibid, 1989). This dichotomy has been experienced by such religions as Christian and Jews. Historically Christians and Jews had been ‘Hellenized’ for centuries under the aegis of this dichotomy. In the Islamic intellectual world, the dichotomy revelation and reason experienced by Christians and Jews might be equivalent to Al-Farabi’s proposition of the ‘battle of thought’ between philosophers and theologians (Mutakallimuun). Such logic continues to dominate the field of intellectual discussion in the modern era’s education. For instance, higher education separates the general science and Islamic science. Students are expected to master general science devoid of Islamic world view. Islamic teaching is only studied in the department of Islamic Science.

Another serious problem of education brought by globalization in Muslim countries is secularization. According to the view of IIT (1989), the process of the secularization in the education domain follow the following frameworks; 1) The educational system in Moslem countries is created to be a laboratory where Muslim youth are kneaded and cut, where their consciousness is molded into a caricature of the West. Accordingly the Muslim’s link with their natural curiosity to learn the legacy of their ancestors is stymied. Furthermore, their willingness to touch base with their heritage and to spring toward creative representation of Islam is blunted with the doubts and the deviation the educational system has injected into every recess of their consciousness; 2) college and universities has been more daring in advocating their un-Islamic theme. The secularist educational school has assumed tremendous proportion, elbowing out the Islamic system from the field; 3) The public fund is poured into secularized educational system.

3. Developing Lecturers Leadership Management and Leadership

The main challenge of higher education in Muslim countries today is not only teaching skills and elevating the competence but also ‘to promote the symbolic values such ; ethical importance, their constitutive role in developing essential concept s of social justice, beauty, truth power and so on’ (Could,2003, p. 19). Islam is rich of such values proposed by Could. As lecturers are the main actors in teaching and educating the students, they become the ‘avant-garde’ and cultivator of Islamic values to students. This is especially significant with regard to the challenge of globalization as explained in the previous section.

While the destructive impacts of globalization challenge higher education, lecturers are trapped in positioning themselves as merely ‘secular managers’. This results in another complicated problem in which many lecturers have insufficient understanding of performing their leadership function in the teaching and learning process. Instead, they view the teaching and learning process as deterministic and mechanistic system in which the teaching and learning process is often considered as merely the transfer of knowledge. Little attention is paid to use teaching and learning process for transferring the values. This paper argues that lecturers should balance their position as both leader and manager in order to be able to transfer the knowledge and Islamic values to students.

3.1 Leadership and Management Defined

Literally hundreds of books and thousands of articles have come out in the last few years on leadership and management. This constitutes how vital the subjects are. A number of experts say that leadership and management are the enabling art simply because ‘they enable all the other arts and professions to work’ (Covey, 2004). As part of the literature review of leadership theories, I gather definition from leading authors who described the differences between leadership and management (See table 1)

Author

Leadership

Management

Zaleznik (1977)

Leaders are concerned with what things mean to people.

Managers are concerned with how things get done.

Marriotti (1998)

Leaders are the architects.

Managers are the builders.

Bennis (1993)

Leaders are people who do the right things.

Managers are people who do things right.

Kuozes and Posner (1995)

Leadership has about it a kinesthetic feel, a sense of movement.

Managing is about handling things, about maintaining order, about organization and control.

Table 1: Differences between leadership and management proposed by leading authors

The definitions proposed by some leading authors above show that the underlining idea of leadership is ‘leading people’ while the idea of management is ‘control thing’. This is relevant to the definition leadership proposed by Covey (2004) as ‘communicating to people their worth and potential so clearly that they come to see it in themselves’. Covey (2004, p. 101) also said that

‘We can’t ‘lead’ things. In fact, it wasn’t until I turned over the management of my company to my son Stephen, and a team of people with strengths that compensated for my weaknesses that it really became profitable. You can’t lead inventories and cash flow and costs. You have to manage them. Why? Because things don’t have power and freedom to choose. Only people do. So you lead (empower) people. You manage and control things”.

Things that people can manage are among others; money, costs, information, time, structure, systems, processes, inventory, physical resources, facilities and tools. In terms of higher education such things as curriculum, syllabus, schedule, course design, lesson plan and so forth should be managed by lecturers while students should be led.

Covey’s definition explains that leadership is not the province of formal authority in an organization or company. Therefore, to cultivate the leadership talent and ability, Covey (2004) suggests that leadership influence should be governed by principles. When a person lives by them, her or his influence and moral authority increase and she or he is often given moral even greater moral authority.

The literature review on leadership and management reinforces that both of them are vital and that either one without the other is insufficient. Therefore, in the context of this paper, lecturers should develop both leadership and management skills and ability.

3.2 Leadership in Islam

The concept of Islamic leadership is rooted in the teaching of the Qur’an and example of the Prophet Muhammad. The Islamic concept of leadership first emerges from the Qur’anic verse that expressed Allah’s wish to appoint His vicegerent on earth soil as to maintain justice among the creations both human beings and jinns that would worship Him. On hearing this, the angels were shocked and inquired: “Do thou place therein one who will do harm therein and will shed blood, while we, we hymn Thy praise and sanctify thee…?” (QS. 2: 30). What these verses inferred is that Adam is the representative of Allah on earth who is to live, worships, and maintain justice among other human beings.

Muhammad in Islam, as the first leader of the Muslim community, is the prime example of a kind of personality that stood on its own merits. This is why his words, deeds and approval are taken as an ideal pattern and regarded as the Islamic tradition and was accepted as the leader of the Muslim society.

Muhammad is introduced in the Qur’an as Rasulullah (the messenger of God) and so are the other prophets. Their authority is based on two principles; 1) Receiving the divine message, 2) spreading the message and seeing that it is carried out. The authority of other Muslim leaders likewise is based on two principles; 1) to understand the message revealed to Muhammad and, 2) to spread it and see it is carried out.

The understanding of Islamic leadership cannot be separated from the understanding that Islam is socialistic, because the object of Islam is the totality of humanity (Ezzati, 1994). This constitutes that in Islam, the human face, man’s humanity and the entire humanity count. The truth cannot be the property of a person, persons, a group, groups, a race, a nation and cannot be monopolized. It belongs to everybody, to all creatures and to the entire humanity. The human mind or soul has no vision of a relation between man and his fellows greater or a nobler than that of intellectual intercourse, and certainly no vision of a world other than that in which any man may influence, determine, transform, or refashion his fellow men by argument or examples.

It is also believed that the Muslim community is the community of ‘amr ma’ruf nahi munkar, and thus leads humanity and deserves leadership. This duty is the duty of the community first and through it the duty of its members. The leadership thus basically belongs to the community and then to its members. This is why the prophet said; “All of you are leaders and are responsible for your leadership. The ruler is leader of his subjects, the man is a leader of his family, the woman is a leader and is responsible for her husband’s house and his offspring; and so all of you are leader and are responsible for your subjects” (Shahih Al-Bukhari No. 893, 7138).

Ezzati (1994) maintains that the logical consequence of Islamic theology, tradition, Qur’anic verses is that the concept of Islamic leadership bears the following features;

1. The concept of leadership must be harmonious with the doctrine of Tauhid.

2. God is the head of the Muslim community.

3. Leadership has been given to the Muslim community and to the Prophet as the divine trust.

4. Leadership is not a political power; it is a responsibility to provide security and peace for the Muslim society to enable it to fulfill its divine purpose and goal.

5. Leadership is closely associated and actually based on the doctrine of Amr ma’ruf nahi munkar (bidding the doing of good and forbidding the abominable).

6. Leadership is a social responsibility (wajib al-kafai) originally belongs to the community as a whole and the government and leaders simply represent the community.

7. Leadership is a responsibility in Islam started with Muhammad and his leadership was based in his risalah (his mission as the messenger of God) and his authority was purely accidental and not original).

8. Prophethood and Islamic leadership is the responsibility of spreading the word of God, leading and guiding society and teaching and educating it, so that it is able to fulfill the divine purpose.

9. Leadership in Islam cannot be monopolized by a group, a race, a nation, etc.

10. There is nothing which must be performed by religious leaders which cannot be done by ordinary people except those which need knowledge of Shari’ah and specialization in Islam.

11. Leadership is a responsibility not a position; it is associated with duties not with privileges. Leadership in Islam is not a symbolic institute nor is it associated with symbolism and symbols.

3.3 Framework for Developing Islamic Leadership and Management for Lectures

Lecturers cannot deny serving their leadership functions due to several reasons. First, globalization has promoted a number of values which are un-Islamic. Therefore it is the duty of the lecturers to challenge the negative forces of globalization by educating Islamic values to students. Second, referring to Ezzati’s opinion that Leadership is a social responsibility (wajib al-kafai) originally belonging to the community as a whole – and the government and leaders simply represent the community-, lecturers cannot get rid of this social responsibility. Fulfilling this responsibility manifests their duty in taking part in the process of amr ma’ruf nahi munkar. Third, lecturers work in educational institutions, meaning that their job is to educate, transferring not only the knowledge but also the values to students’ mind.

<p ￿

DEVELOPING LECTURERS’ ISLAMIC LEADERSHIP AND MANAGEMENT TO FACE THE CHALLENGE OF GLOBALIZATION

Endro Dwi Hatmanto, UMY

Paper presented in the International Seminar, IIUM, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 2009

Abstract

Globalization is a sword with two edges for higher education in Islamic countries. In one edge, globalization offers opportunity for lecturers and students to access, disseminate and communicate information and knowledge thanks to the advent of internet and information technology. On the other edge, however, the wide opportunity of information access causes the information overload. Much of the information contains values and worldviews which are alien to Islamic principles. Many scholars suggest that globalization is a complex range of process and events driven solely by a mixture of political and economic influence. It touches all of our lives – including educational domain-even in the ways in which human relates with God and other people. The example of major effects of globalization is the rise of secular and materialistic life and intense individualism. This leads to selfish and self-serving means which are often used to achieve ends that are inimical to Islamic education and values. Selfish and materialistic way of life can, in fact, become an addiction which might contribute to more widespread social malaise for Muslim society. It is not only individuals in society who can become addicted, or who contribute to these addictive process, a number of our societal agencies and institution, including higher education may also be part of the problem. While the destructive impacts of globalization challenge higher education, lecturers are trapped in positioning themselves as merely ‘secular managers’. This results in another complicated problem in which many lecturers have insufficient understanding of performing their leadership function in the teaching and learning process. Instead, they view the teaching and learning process as deterministic and mechanistic system in which the teaching and learning process is often considered as merely the transfer of knowledge. Little attention is paid to use teaching and learning process for transferring the values. The paper argues that to overcome this problem, lecturers should adopt both the concept of Islamic management and leadership in the teaching and learning process in higher education. In order to achieve the aim of the research, the library research is conducted. The theory of globalization and its negative impacts in the educational process in higher education will be explored. Then, the principles of Islamic management and leadership practiced and taught by the Prophet and Qur’an will be presented and analyzed. Having presented the concepts of the Islamic management and leadership, the paper attempts to offer the strategies to develop educational management and leadership in the teaching and learning process which can be adopted by lecturers. Covey’s framework for developing lecturers’ leadership and management will be used in this paper. The framework consists of modeling, path finding, aligning, and empowering.

Keywords: Globalization, management, leadership, Islamic management and leadership

All of you are leaders and are responsible for your leadership. The ruler is a leader of his subjects, the man is a leader of his family, the woman is a leader and is responsible for her husband’s house and his offspring; and so all of you are leader and are responsible for your subjects”

Shahih Al-Bukhari

1. Introduction

Lecturers at higher education are confronted by both internal and external challenge and expectations that make considerable demands on their time, expertise, energies and emotional well being. One of the biggest challenges is posed by the emergence of globalization.

In the Islamic countries including Indonesia, lecturer at higher education are increasingly being held responsible for both performance and compliance with Islamic ethical and moral standards in their educational practices.

While some lecturers may experience confusion, even frustration, in attempting to respond productively to the globalization challenges, many other lecturers feel used, even devalued, by the current emphasis on educational management values, strategies and practices in many educational organizations. In other words, many lecturers are faced with tension of the demands of ‘managerialism’ stressing on efficiency, productivity and accountability. On the contrary, the expectation of lecturers to position themselves as leaders being responsible for cultivating Islamic values in higher education is reduced, even annihilated.

In fact, at the end of the third millennium the challenges offered by globalization are mounting. While many scholars suggest that globalization is a complex range of process and events driven solely by a mixture of political and economic influence, globalization actually touches all of our lives – including educational domain-even in the ways in which human relates with God and other people. The example of major effects of globalization is the rise of secular and materialistic life and intense individualism. This leads to selfish and self-serving means which are often used to achieve ends that are inimical to Islamic education and values. Secular and materialistic way of life can, in fact, become an addiction which might contribute to more widespread social malaise for Muslim society. It is not only individuals in society who can become addicted, or who contribute to these addictive process, a number of our societal agencies and institution, including higher education may also be part of the problem.

Many lecturers at higher education are expected to develop ethical responsibility to optimize learning opportunities by creating learning environment that are Islamic, visionary, strategic, student centered and motivational. However, many lecturers are still trapped in the deterministic and mechanistic system of teaching and learning. Indeed this is due to the fanaticism in adopting the ‘managerialism’ approach in educational system. Using this system lectures regard educating as merely the transfer of knowledge.

This paper argues that facing the challenge of globalization, instead of being merely managers lecturers should perform their leadership functions in the teaching and learning process. This is to suggest that not only do lecturers transfer knowledge, but lecturers should also transfer the Islamic values.

This paper is written in the context of assisting lecturer to be both manager and leader in the milieu of educational process in the globalization era which is sensitive to the need for the sound Islamic ethical standards embodied in the teaching and learning process.

To achieve this aim, the paper is structured as follows. First, the theory of globalization and its negative impacts in the educational process in the Muslim society will be explored. Then, the principles of Islamic management and leadership practiced and taught by the Prophet and Qur’an will be presented and analyzed. Having presented the concepts of Islamic management and leadership, the paper attempts to offer strategies to develop Islamic educational management and leadership in the teaching and learning process which can be adopted by lecturers.

2. Globalization and Its Impact to Moslem Countries

2.1 Globalization: Its Definition and Its Multi-Dimensional Impacts.

Globalization can be defined as a catch-all term for the expansion of diverse forms of economic, political, and cultural activity beyond national borders (Calhoun, 2002). At the economic level, globalization involves the emergence of a complex system of multinational capitalism in which corporations conduct business and locate production at locations worldwide. This includes the development of a system of international finance capable of rapidly shifting large amounts of investment capital from one place to another, as economic or political condition dictates.

According to Calhoun (2002) economic globalization is closely tied to political developments that are intended to facilitate and control international trade. The emergence of the IMF (International Monetary Fund) as a regulator of international economic stability and the creation of a Word Trade Organization with sovereign authority over trade disputes among its members are prominent examples.

The impact of globalization in the economic dimension has produced a strong geographical division among countries that separates the powerful core industrial nations from semi-peripheral and peripheral nations. The core industrial nations include the United States, most of Western Europe, and Japan. The semi-peripheral nations comprise newly industrious countries, such as Mexico and Malaysia while the peripheral nations are those that primarily supply raw materials to the industrial nations, on terms largely determined by the multinational companies and their proxies.

Unfortunately, the economic geographical division constitutes the domination of countries with strong economy on the country with poor economy. Roskin et al (2000) argue that that due to globalization, economic growth is highly uneven since the key players are giant corporations and the core industrial countries. The third world countries remain peripheral. The consequence of the industrial countries’ domination over the world economy is that the economic growth becomes uneven. According to Roskin et al (2000) contrary to the core industrial countries which becomes prosperous, the peripheral countries become fall further behind.

Globalization also has a cultural dimension, ‘as international capitalism homogenizes consumer good and services’ (ibid, 2002). Ritzer (1993) describes this process by the term McDonaldization of society. Equally important in this context is the ongoing communication revolution, as the internet, phone services, and other means of international communication become ubiquitous and affordable-at least for those who are privileged enough to participate in the global economy. This raises a last dimension of globalization that touches simultaneously on cultural, economic, and political issues: the emergence of an international capitalist class whose culture, economic, and political allegiances are broadly defined by loyalty to and dependence on the system.

Globalization might bring benefits. According to Roskin et al (2000) with a largely free flow of trade, the world economy is growing as never before, especially in the third world. Poorer countries, some written off as basket cases, are stirring to life. More products, including previously expensive items, are produced in abundance and at low cost, enabling most of the world to enjoy VCRs and computers. Additionally, big, transnational corporations are proud to be able to design an item in one country, assemble it in a second country with components from a third, and market it in a fourth without the borders.

2.2 Impacts of Globalization to Moslem Countries

Prosperity promised by globalization does not necessarily bring peace (Ibid, 2000). Roskin points out that indeed, newly affluent countries often demand respect, resources, and sometimes territory. Roskin further gives an example of China. According to Roskin, as China got richer in the 1990s it defined its borders more grandly, reaching far out into the South and East China seas, where there is undersea oil.

The opponents of the Globalization often relate the globalization concept with the spreading of the Westernization and Americanization. By definition, Westernization and Americanization is projects that spread the Western and American values around the world. Gramcy (cited in Calhoun, 2002) coined this phenomenon as a cultural hegemony[1].

As the dominant power, economically and politically, America and Western countries attempt to spread their values to people around the world. Odom and Dujarric (2004) describes the domination of America around the world as ‘America’s inadvertent empire’. According to Odom and Dujarric (2004), the sources of America’s domination are military, demography, economy, university, science, media and mass culture. Through these domination of sources America manages to ‘colonize’ other countries economically, politically and culturally (ibid, 2004)

As a result, many nations attempts to fight against this form of cultural hegemony. The book entitled ‘Jihad and MacWord’ written by Barber (1995) shows how Muslims nations – and other nations – make effort to oppose the socialization of Western-capitalistic values to the Muslim countries.

In fact, globalization brings about a number of negative impacts on economy, politic, culture and morality, and education to Moslem society. In the next section the impacts of globalization on education and culture will be highlighted and focused since these two areas give tremendous influence in the shaping of the Muslims world view and education.

2.2.3 Impacts on Culture

The International Institute of Islamic Thought / IIT (1988) points out that most of Moslem countries take westernization, lured by the successful example of the West and prompted by their Westernized advisers. IIT (1989, p. 46) states:

“Westernized Muslim leaders did not grasp the fact that their programs would sooner or later undermine the very foundations of the faith and culture of their subjects. The connection between the manifestations of Western productivity and power and the Western views on God and man; on life, nature, the world; and on time and history was too subtle for Muslims leaders to grasp or, in their hurry, to consider. A secular system of education was built that taught Western values and methods. Soon graduates who were ignorant of the Islamic legacy began to pour into society. The new graduates became suspicious of the majority of the guardians of the legacy, the ulama’, who were dogmatists, legalists, and literalists, who failed to distinguish between those justice verdicts (ahkaan) of the Qur’an and the Sunnah that could be discarded or dismissed, and those matters that are open to creative exercise of judgment (Ijtihad). The graduates’ suspicion of the guardians of the legacy increased and a gap began to develop within the ranks of the Ummah, dividing it into Westernizing secularizers and opponents of secularization”

Husaini (2006) supports IIT’s argument stating that the agents of Westernization attack everything either directly or indirectly. The perfection of the Qur’anic text, the prophet’s message, the veracity of the sunnah, the glories of the Muslims achievements in civilization and the comprehensiveness of the shari’ah are denigrated. Husaini (2006) argues that the purpose is to inject doubt into the Muslim’s confidence in themselves, in their Ummah and in their faith. This leads to undermining their Islamic consciousness and subvert their Islamic personality. This condition is worsened by the emergence of media in the globalization era promoting Western culture. Newspaper, books and magazines, radio and television, cinema and theater, records and tapes and street poster and neon signs bombarded them daily with such effects.

Bombarded by the alien Western culture and way of life through the media in the era of globalization, Muslims lost their integrity of Islamic culture. The unity of the Islamic style of life is shattered in their thought, in their own person, actions and their families. ‘Instead of raising themselves from their debasement to height of virtue and societal efficacy envisaged from them by Islam, Muslim men and women began to hanker after the manifestations of Western decade: gradually nudity and immorality of dress and make-up (tabarruj), economic independence aimed at individualistic license, egotistic pursuit of pleasure, and avoidance of duties imposed by family relationships.

Similar to this argument, some Western writers voice the same notion. For example, Giddens (1998, P. 33) in his groundbreaking book ‘The third way’, suggested that globalization is a complex range of process and events driven, primarily, by ‘…a mixture of political and economic influences’. It is interesting to note that globalization touches all people’s lives, transforming our social and institutional process, even in the ways in which we relate to other people and God. It is this latter perspective on globalization that is of most interest here, because as Giddens (1998, p. 33) so clearly pointed out, globalization is ‘…directly relevant to the rise of…the “new Individualism”…’

Duignan (2006) added that ‘it would seem that globalization, especially in secular and materialistic dimensions, is contributing to a more disengaged mode of existence for many people, especially in the developed world’. Taylor (1989, p. 500) relates this condition referring to ‘…empty life of its richness, depth, or meaning’. Duignan (2006) also posits that our isolationist and self-centered ways are causing us to grasp at more temporary and ultimately less fulfilling forms of engagement, and the gradual disengagement of the self from a sense of the collective can lead to the development of selective blindness for the plight of others less fortunate than ourselves, to the point where it can become at many levels of society. In fact, many contemporary secular Western societies are based on intense individualism (Sommerville, 2000).

2.2.4 Impacts on Education

It has been generally known that due to the colonialism, the intellectual and methodological decline of the Ummah becomes the core of Muslims’ malaise. In the modern era, this condition is worsened by the globalization, making it possible for the Western values to flourish in Muslims society through media and information technology. In this juncture the educational system is the breeding ground of the malaise. Schools and universities perpetuate the self-estrangement from Islam, from its legacy and from its style.

In higher education, example of the self-estrangement from Islamic legacy includes the opposition of revelation to reason (IIT, 1989). The dichotomy between revelation and reason might be the most devastating development in the intellectual history of the Ummah (ibid, 1989). This dichotomy has been experienced by such religions as Christian and Jews. Historically Christians and Jews had been ‘Hellenized’ for centuries under the aegis of this dichotomy. In the Islamic intellectual world, the dichotomy revelation and reason experienced by Christians and Jews might be equivalent to Al-Farabi’s proposition of the ‘battle of thought’ between philosophers and theologians (Mutakallimuun). Such logic continues to dominate the field of intellectual discussion in the modern era’s education. For instance, higher education separates the general science and Islamic science. Students are expected to master general science devoid of Islamic world view. Islamic teaching is only studied in the department of Islamic Science.

Another serious problem of education brought by globalization in Muslim countries is secularization. According to the view of IIT (1989), the process of the secularization in the education domain follow the following frameworks; 1) The educational system in Moslem countries is created to be a laboratory where Muslim youth are kneaded and cut, where their consciousness is molded into a caricature of the West. Accordingly the Muslim’s link with their natural curiosity to learn the legacy of their ancestors is stymied. Furthermore, their willingness to touch base with their heritage and to spring toward creative representation of Islam is blunted with the doubts and the deviation the educational system has injected into every recess of their consciousness; 2) college and universities has been more daring in advocating their un-Islamic theme. The secularist educational school has assumed tremendous proportion, elbowing out the Islamic system from the field; 3) The public fund is poured into secularized educational system.

3. Developing Lecturers Leadership Management and Leadership

The main challenge of higher education in Muslim countries today is not only teaching skills and elevating the competence but also ‘to promote the symbolic values such ; ethical importance, their constitutive role in developing essential concept s of social justice, beauty, truth power and so on’ (Could,2003, p. 19). Islam is rich of such values proposed by Could. As lecturers are the main actors in teaching and educating the students, they become the ‘avant-garde’ and cultivator of Islamic values to students. This is especially significant with regard to the challenge of globalization as explained in the previous section.

While the destructive impacts of globalization challenge higher education, lecturers are trapped in positioning themselves as merely ‘secular managers’. This results in another complicated problem in which many lecturers have insufficient understanding of performing their leadership function in the teaching and learning process. Instead, they view the teaching and learning process as deterministic and mechanistic system in which the teaching and learning process is often considered as merely the transfer of knowledge. Little attention is paid to use teaching and learning process for transferring the values. This paper argues that lecturers should balance their position as both leader and manager in order to be able to transfer the knowledge and Islamic values to students.

3.1 Leadership and Management Defined

Literally hundreds of books and thousands of articles have come out in the last few years on leadership and management. This constitutes how vital the subjects are. A number of experts say that leadership and management are the enabling art simply because ‘they enable all the other arts and professions to work’ (Covey, 2004). As part of the literature review of leadership theories, I gather definition from leading authors who described the differences between leadership and management (See table 1)

Author

Leadership

Management

Zaleznik (1977)

Leaders are concerned with what things mean to people.

Managers are concerned with how things get done.

Marriotti (1998)

Leaders are the architects.

Managers are the builders.

Bennis (1993)

Leaders are people who do the right things.

Managers are people who do things right.

Kuozes and Posner (1995)

Leadership has about it a kinesthetic feel, a sense of movement.

Managing is about handling things, about maintaining order, about organization and control.

Table 1: Differences between leadership and management proposed by leading authors

The definitions proposed by some leading authors above show that the underlining idea of leadership is ‘leading people’ while the idea of management is ‘control thing’. This is relevant to the definition leadership proposed by Covey (2004) as ‘communicating to people their worth and potential so clearly that they come to see it in themselves’. Covey (2004, p. 101) also said that

‘We can’t ‘lead’ things. In fact, it wasn’t until I turned over the management of my company to my son Stephen, and a team of people with strengths that compensated for my weaknesses that it really became profitable. You can’t lead inventories and cash flow and costs. You have to manage them. Why? Because things don’t have power and freedom to choose. Only people do. So you lead (empower) people. You manage and control things”.

Things that people can manage are among others; money, costs, information, time, structure, systems, processes, inventory, physical resources, facilities and tools. In terms of higher education such things as curriculum, syllabus, schedule, course design, lesson plan and so forth should be managed by lecturers while students should be led.

Covey’s definition explains that leadership is not the province of formal authority in an organization or company. Therefore, to cultivate the leadership talent and ability, Covey (2004) suggests that leadership influence should be governed by principles. When a person lives by them, her or his influence and moral authority increase and she or he is often given moral even greater moral authority.

The literature review on leadership and management reinforces that both of them are vital and that either one without the other is insufficient. Therefore, in the context of this paper, lecturers should develop both leadership and management skills and ability.

3.2 Leadership in Islam

The concept of Islamic leadership is rooted in the teaching of the Qur’an and example of the Prophet Muhammad. The Islamic concept of leadership first emerges from the Qur’anic verse that expressed Allah’s wish to appoint His vicegerent on earth soil as to maintain justice among the creations both human beings and jinns that would worship Him. On hearing this, the angels were shocked and inquired: “Do thou place therein one who will do harm therein and will shed blood, while we, we hymn Thy praise and sanctify thee…?” (QS. 2: 30). What these verses inferred is that Adam is the representative of Allah on earth who is to live, worships, and maintain justice among other human beings.

Muhammad in Islam, as the first leader of the Muslim community, is the prime example of a kind of personality that stood on its own merits. This is why his words, deeds and approval are taken as an ideal pattern and regarded as the Islamic tradition and was accepted as the leader of the Muslim society.

Muhammad is introduced in the Qur’an as Rasulullah (the messenger of God) and so are the other prophets. Their authority is based on two principles; 1) Receiving the divine message, 2) spreading the message and seeing that it is carried out. The authority of other Muslim leaders likewise is based on two principles; 1) to understand the message revealed to Muhammad and, 2) to spread it and see it is carried out.

The understanding of Islamic leadership cannot be separated from the understanding that Islam is socialistic, because the object of Islam is the totality of humanity (Ezzati, 1994). This constitutes that in Islam, the human face, man’s humanity and the entire humanity count. The truth cannot be the property of a person, persons, a group, groups, a race, a nation and cannot be monopolized. It belongs to everybody, to all creatures and to the entire humanity. The human mind or soul has no vision of a relation between man and his fellows greater or a nobler than that of intellectual intercourse, and certainly no vision of a world other than that in which any man may influence, determine, transform, or refashion his fellow men by argument or examples.

It is also believed that the Muslim community is the community of ‘amr ma’ruf nahi munkar, and thus leads humanity and deserves leadership. This duty is the duty of the community first and through it the duty of its members. The leadership thus basically belongs to the community and then to its members. This is why the prophet said; “All of you are leaders and are responsible for your leadership. The ruler is leader of his subjects, the man is a leader of his family, the woman is a leader and is responsible for her husband’s house and his offspring; and so all of you are leader and are responsible for your subjects” (Shahih Al-Bukhari No. 893, 7138).

Ezzati (1994) maintains that the logical consequence of Islamic theology, tradition, Qur’anic verses is that the concept of Islamic leadership bears the following features;

1. The concept of leadership must be harmonious with the doctrine of Tauhid.

2. God is the head of the Muslim community.

3. Leadership has been given to the Muslim community and to the Prophet as the divine trust.

4. Leadership is not a political power; it is a responsibility to provide security and peace for the Muslim society to enable it to fulfill its divine purpose and goal.

5. Leadership is closely associated and actually based on the doctrine of Amr ma’ruf nahi munkar (bidding the doing of good and forbidding the abominable).

6. Leadership is a social responsibility (wajib al-kafai) originally belongs to the community as a whole and the government and leaders simply represent the community.

7. Leadership is a responsibility in Islam started with Muhammad and his leadership was based in his risalah (his mission as the messenger of God) and his authority was purely accidental and not original).

8. Prophethood and Islamic leadership is the responsibility of spreading the word of God, leading and guiding society and teaching and educating it, so that it is able to fulfill the divine purpose.

9. Leadership in Islam cannot be monopolized by a group, a race, a nation, etc.

10. There is nothing which must be performed by religious leaders which cannot be done by ordinary people except those which need knowledge of Shari’ah and specialization in Islam.

11. Leadership is a responsibility not a position; it is associated with duties not with privileges. Leadership in Islam is not a symbolic institute nor is it associated with symbolism and symbols.

3.3 Framework for Developing Islamic Leadership and Management for Lectures

Lecturers cannot deny serving their leadership functions due to several reasons. First, globalization has promoted a number of values which are un-Islamic. Therefore it is the duty of the lecturers to challenge the negative forces of globalization by educating Islamic values to students. Second, referring to Ezzati’s opinion that Leadership is a social responsibility (wajib al-kafai) originally belonging to the community as a whole – and the government and leaders simply represent the community-, lecturers cannot get rid of this social responsibility. Fulfilling this responsibility manifests their duty in taking part in the process of amr ma’ruf nahi munkar. Third, lecturers work in educational institutions, meaning that their job is to educate, transferring not only the knowledge but also the values to students’ mind.

Pathfinding

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DEVELOPING LECTURERS’ ISLAMIC LEADERSHIP AND MANAGEMENT TO FACE THE CHALLENGE OF GLOBALIZATION

Endro Dwi Hatmanto, UMY

Paper presented in the International Seminar, IIUM, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 2009

Abstract

Globalization is a sword with two edges for higher education in Islamic countries. In one edge, globalization offers opportunity for lecturers and students to access, disseminate and communicate information and knowledge thanks to the advent of internet and information technology. On the other edge, however, the wide opportunity of information access causes the information overload. Much of the information contains values and worldviews which are alien to Islamic principles. Many scholars suggest that globalization is a complex range of process and events driven solely by a mixture of political and economic influence. It touches all of our lives – including educational domain-even in the ways in which human relates with God and other people. The example of major effects of globalization is the rise of secular and materialistic life and intense individualism. This leads to selfish and self-serving means which are often used to achieve ends that are inimical to Islamic education and values. Selfish and materialistic way of life can, in fact, become an addiction which might contribute to more widespread social malaise for Muslim society. It is not only individuals in society who can become addicted, or who contribute to these addictive process, a number of our societal agencies and institution, including higher education may also be part of the problem. While the destructive impacts of globalization challenge higher education, lecturers are trapped in positioning themselves as merely ‘secular managers’. This results in another complicated problem in which many lecturers have insufficient understanding of performing their leadership function in the teaching and learning process. Instead, they view the teaching and learning process as deterministic and mechanistic system in which the teaching and learning process is often considered as merely the transfer of knowledge. Little attention is paid to use teaching and learning process for transferring the values. The paper argues that to overcome this problem, lecturers should adopt both the concept of Islamic management and leadership in the teaching and learning process in higher education. In order to achieve the aim of the research, the library research is conducted. The theory of globalization and its negative impacts in the educational process in higher education will be explored. Then, the principles of Islamic management and leadership practiced and taught by the Prophet and Qur’an will be presented and analyzed. Having presented the concepts of the Islamic management and leadership, the paper attempts to offer the strategies to develop educational management and leadership in the teaching and learning process which can be adopted by lecturers. Covey’s framework for developing lecturers’ leadership and management will be used in this paper. The framework consists of modeling, path finding, aligning, and empowering.

Keywords: Globalization, management, leadership, Islamic management and leadership

All of you are leaders and are responsible for your leadership. The ruler is a leader of his subjects, the man is a leader of his family, the woman is a leader and is responsible for her husband’s house and his offspring; and so all of you are leader and are responsible for your subjects”

Shahih Al-Bukhari

1. Introduction

Lecturers at higher education are confronted by both internal and external challenge and expectations that make considerable demands on their time, expertise, energies and emotional well being. One of the biggest challenges is posed by the emergence of globalization.

In the Islamic countries including Indonesia, lecturer at higher education are increasingly being held responsible for both performance and compliance with Islamic ethical and moral standards in their educational practices.

While some lecturers may experience confusion, even frustration, in attempting to respond productively to the globalization challenges, many other lecturers feel used, even devalued, by the current emphasis on educational management values, strategies and practices in many educational organizations. In other words, many lecturers are faced with tension of the demands of ‘managerialism’ stressing on efficiency, productivity and accountability. On the contrary, the expectation of lecturers to position themselves as leaders being responsible for cultivating Islamic values in higher education is reduced, even annihilated.

In fact, at the end of the third millennium the challenges offered by globalization are mounting. While many scholars suggest that globalization is a complex range of process and events driven solely by a mixture of political and economic influence, globalization actually touches all of our lives – including educational domain-even in the ways in which human relates with God and other people. The example of major effects of globalization is the rise of secular and materialistic life and intense individualism. This leads to selfish and self-serving means which are often used to achieve ends that are inimical to Islamic education and values. Secular and materialistic way of life can, in fact, become an addiction which might contribute to more widespread social malaise for Muslim society. It is not only individuals in society who can become addicted, or who contribute to these addictive process, a number of our societal agencies and institution, including higher education may also be part of the problem.

Many lecturers at higher education are expected to develop ethical responsibility to optimize learning opportunities by creating learning environment that are Islamic, visionary, strategic, student centered and motivational. However, many lecturers are still trapped in the deterministic and mechanistic system of teaching and learning. Indeed this is due to the fanaticism in adopting the ‘managerialism’ approach in educational system. Using this system lectures regard educating as merely the transfer of knowledge.

This paper argues that facing the challenge of globalization, instead of being merely managers lecturers should perform their leadership functions in the teaching and learning process. This is to suggest that not only do lecturers transfer knowledge, but lecturers should also transfer the Islamic values.

This paper is written in the context of assisting lecturer to be both manager and leader in the milieu of educational process in the globalization era which is sensitive to the need for the sound Islamic ethical standards embodied in the teaching and learning process.

To achieve this aim, the paper is structured as follows. First, the theory of globalization and its negative impacts in the educational process in the Muslim society will be explored. Then, the principles of Islamic management and leadership practiced and taught by the Prophet and Qur’an will be presented and analyzed. Having presented the concepts of Islamic management and leadership, the paper attempts to offer strategies to develop Islamic educational management and leadership in the teaching and learning process which can be adopted by lecturers.

2. Globalization and Its Impact to Moslem Countries

2.1 Globalization: Its Definition and Its Multi-Dimensional Impacts.

Globalization can be defined as a catch-all term for the expansion of diverse forms of economic, political, and cultural activity beyond national borders (Calhoun, 2002). At the economic level, globalization involves the emergence of a complex system of multinational capitalism in which corporations conduct business and locate production at locations worldwide. This includes the development of a system of international finance capable of rapidly shifting large amounts of investment capital from one place to another, as economic or political condition dictates.

According to Calhoun (2002) economic globalization is closely tied to political developments that are intended to facilitate and control international trade. The emergence of the IMF (International Monetary Fund) as a regulator of international economic stability and the creation of a Word Trade Organization with sovereign authority over trade disputes among its members are prominent examples.

The impact of globalization in the economic dimension has produced a strong geographical division among countries that separates the powerful core industrial nations from semi-peripheral and peripheral nations. The core industrial nations include the United States, most of Western Europe, and Japan. The semi-peripheral nations comprise newly industrious countries, such as Mexico and Malaysia while the peripheral nations are those that primarily supply raw materials to the industrial nations, on terms largely determined by the multinational companies and their proxies.

Unfortunately, the economic geographical division constitutes the domination of countries with strong economy on the country with poor economy. Roskin et al (2000) argue that that due to globalization, economic growth is highly uneven since the key players are giant corporations and the core industrial countries. The third world countries remain peripheral. The consequence of the industrial countries’ domination over the world economy is that the economic growth becomes uneven. According to Roskin et al (2000) contrary to the core industrial countries which becomes prosperous, the peripheral countries become fall further behind.

Globalization also has a cultural dimension, ‘as international capitalism homogenizes consumer good and services’ (ibid, 2002). Ritzer (1993) describes this process by the term McDonaldization of society. Equally important in this context is the ongoing communication revolution, as the internet, phone services, and other means of international communication become ubiquitous and affordable-at least for those who are privileged enough to participate in the global economy. This raises a last dimension of globalization that touches simultaneously on cultural, economic, and political issues: the emergence of an international capitalist class whose culture, economic, and political allegiances are broadly defined by loyalty to and dependence on the system.

Globalization might bring benefits. According to Roskin et al (2000) with a largely free flow of trade, the world economy is growing as never before, especially in the third world. Poorer countries, some written off as basket cases, are stirring to life. More products, including previously expensive items, are produced in abundance and at low cost, enabling most of the world to enjoy VCRs and computers. Additionally, big, transnational corporations are proud to be able to design an item in one country, assemble it in a second country with components from a third, and market it in a fourth without the borders.

2.2 Impacts of Globalization to Moslem Countries

Prosperity promised by globalization does not necessarily bring peace (Ibid, 2000). Roskin points out that indeed, newly affluent countries often demand respect, resources, and sometimes territory. Roskin further gives an example of China. According to Roskin, as China got richer in the 1990s it defined its borders more grandly, reaching far out into the South and East China seas, where there is undersea oil.

The opponents of the Globalization often relate the globalization concept with the spreading of the Westernization and Americanization. By definition, Westernization and Americanization is projects that spread the Western and American values around the world. Gramcy (cited in Calhoun, 2002) coined this phenomenon as a cultural hegemony[1].

As the dominant power, economically and politically, America and Western countries attempt to spread their values to people around the world. Odom and Dujarric (2004) describes the domination of America around the world as ‘America’s inadvertent empire’. According to Odom and Dujarric (2004), the sources of America’s domination are military, demography, economy, university, science, media and mass culture. Through these domination of sources America manages to ‘colonize’ other countries economically, politically and culturally (ibid, 2004)

As a result, many nations attempts to fight against this form of cultural hegemony. The book entitled ‘Jihad and MacWord’ written by Barber (1995) shows how Muslims nations – and other nations – make effort to oppose the socialization of Western-capitalistic values to the Muslim countries.

In fact, globalization brings about a number of negative impacts on economy, politic, culture and morality, and education to Moslem society. In the next section the impacts of globalization on education and culture will be highlighted and focused since these two areas give tremendous influence in the shaping of the Muslims world view and education.

2.2.3 Impacts on Culture

The International Institute of Islamic Thought / IIT (1988) points out that most of Moslem countries take westernization, lured by the successful example of the West and prompted by their Westernized advisers. IIT (1989, p. 46) states:

“Westernized Muslim leaders did not grasp the fact that their programs would sooner or later undermine the very foundations of the faith and culture of their subjects. The connection between the manifestations of Western productivity and power and the Western views on God and man; on life, nature, the world; and on time and history was too subtle for Muslims leaders to grasp or, in their hurry, to consider. A secular system of education was built that taught Western values and methods. Soon graduates who were ignorant of the Islamic legacy began to pour into society. The new graduates became suspicious of the majority of the guardians of the legacy, the ulama’, who were dogmatists, legalists, and literalists, who failed to distinguish between those justice verdicts (ahkaan) of the Qur’an and the Sunnah that could be discarded or dismissed, and those matters that are open to creative exercise of judgment (Ijtihad). The graduates’ suspicion of the guardians of the legacy increased and a gap began to develop within the ranks of the Ummah, dividing it into Westernizing secularizers and opponents of secularization”

Husaini (2006) supports IIT’s argument stating that the agents of Westernization attack everything either directly or indirectly. The perfection of the Qur’anic text, the prophet’s message, the veracity of the sunnah, the glories of the Muslims achievements in civilization and the comprehensiveness of the shari’ah are denigrated. Husaini (2006) argues that the purpose is to inject doubt into the Muslim’s confidence in themselves, in their Ummah and in their faith. This leads to undermining their Islamic consciousness and subvert their Islamic personality. This condition is worsened by the emergence of media in the globalization era promoting Western culture. Newspaper, books and magazines, radio and television, cinema and theater, records and tapes and street poster and neon signs bombarded them daily with such effects.

Bombarded by the alien Western culture and way of life through the media in the era of globalization, Muslims lost their integrity of Islamic culture. The unity of the Islamic style of life is shattered in their thought, in their own person, actions and their families. ‘Instead of raising themselves from their debasement to height of virtue and societal efficacy envisaged from them by Islam, Muslim men and women began to hanker after the manifestations of Western decade: gradually nudity and immorality of dress and make-up (tabarruj), economic independence aimed at individualistic license, egotistic pursuit of pleasure, and avoidance of duties imposed by family relationships.

Similar to this argument, some Western writers voice the same notion. For example, Giddens (1998, P. 33) in his groundbreaking book ‘The third way’, suggested that globalization is a complex range of process and events driven, primarily, by ‘…a mixture of political and economic influences’. It is interesting to note that globalization touches all people’s lives, transforming our social and institutional process, even in the ways in which we relate to other people and God. It is this latter perspective on globalization that is of most interest here, because as Giddens (1998, p. 33) so clearly pointed out, globalization is ‘…directly relevant to the rise of…the “new Individualism”…’

Duignan (2006) added that ‘it would seem that globalization, especially in secular and materialistic dimensions, is contributing to a more disengaged mode of existence for many people, especially in the developed world’. Taylor (1989, p. 500) relates this condition referring to ‘…empty life of its richness, depth, or meaning’. Duignan (2006) also posits that our isolationist and self-centered ways are causing us to grasp at more temporary and ultimately less fulfilling forms of engagement, and the gradual disengagement of the self from a sense of the collective can lead to the development of selective blindness for the plight of others less fortunate than ourselves, to the point where it can become at many levels of society. In fact, many contemporary secular Western societies are based on intense individualism (Sommerville, 2000).

2.2.4 Impacts on Education

It has been generally known that due to the colonialism, the intellectual and methodological decline of the Ummah becomes the core of Muslims’ malaise. In the modern era, this condition is worsened by the globalization, making it possible for the Western values to flourish in Muslims society through media and information technology. In this juncture the educational system is the breeding ground of the malaise. Schools and universities perpetuate the self-estrangement from Islam, from its legacy and from its style.

In higher education, example of the self-estrangement from Islamic legacy includes the opposition of revelation to reason (IIT, 1989). The dichotomy between revelation and reason might be the most devastating development in the intellectual history of the Ummah (ibid, 1989). This dichotomy has been experienced by such religions as Christian and Jews. Historically Christians and Jews had been ‘Hellenized’ for centuries under the aegis of this dichotomy. In the Islamic intellectual world, the dichotomy revelation and reason experienced by Christians and Jews might be equivalent to Al-Farabi’s proposition of the ‘battle of thought’ between philosophers and theologians (Mutakallimuun). Such logic continues to dominate the field of intellectual discussion in the modern era’s education. For instance, higher education separates the general science and Islamic science. Students are expected to master general science devoid of Islamic world view. Islamic teaching is only studied in the department of Islamic Science.

Another serious problem of education brought by globalization in Muslim countries is secularization. According to the view of IIT (1989), the process of the secularization in the education domain follow the following frameworks; 1) The educational system in Moslem countries is created to be a laboratory where Muslim youth are kneaded and cut, where their consciousness is molded into a caricature of the West. Accordingly the Muslim’s link with their natural curiosity to learn the legacy of their ancestors is stymied. Furthermore, their willingness to touch base with their heritage and to spring toward creative representation of Islam is blunted with the doubts and the deviation the educational system has injected into every recess of their consciousness; 2) college and universities has been more daring in advocating their un-Islamic theme. The secularist educational school has assumed tremendous proportion, elbowing out the Islamic system from the field; 3) The public fund is poured into secularized educational system.

3. Developing Lecturers Leadership Management and Leadership

The main challenge of higher education in Muslim countries today is not only teaching skills and elevating the competence but also ‘to promote the symbolic values such ; ethical importance, their constitutive role in developing essential concept s of social justice, beauty, truth power and so on’ (Could,2003, p. 19). Islam is rich of such values proposed by Could. As lecturers are the main actors in teaching and educating the students, they become the ‘avant-garde’ and cultivator of Islamic values to students. This is especially significant with regard to the challenge of globalization as explained in the previous section.

While the destructive impacts of globalization challenge higher education, lecturers are trapped in positioning themselves as merely ‘secular managers’. This results in another complicated problem in which many lecturers have insufficient understanding of performing their leadership function in the teaching and learning process. Instead, they view the teaching and learning process as deterministic and mechanistic system in which the teaching and learning process is often considered as merely the transfer of knowledge. Little attention is paid to use teaching and learning process for transferring the values. This paper argues that lecturers should balance their position as both leader and manager in order to be able to transfer the knowledge and Islamic values to students.

3.1 Leadership and Management Defined

Literally hundreds of books and thousands of articles have come out in the last few years on leadership and management. This constitutes how vital the subjects are. A number of experts say that leadership and management are the enabling art simply because ‘they enable all the other arts and professions to work’ (Covey, 2004). As part of the literature review of leadership theories, I gather definition from leading authors who described the differences between leadership and management (See table 1)

Author

Leadership

Management

Zaleznik (1977)

Leaders are concerned with what things mean to people.

Managers are concerned with how things get done.

Marriotti (1998)

Leaders are the architects.

Managers are the builders.

Bennis (1993)

Leaders are people who do the right things.

Managers are people who do things right.

Kuozes and Posner (1995)

Leadership has about it a kinesthetic feel, a sense of movement.

Managing is about handling things, about maintaining order, about organization and control.

Table 1: Differences between leadership and management proposed by leading authors

The definitions proposed by some leading authors above show that the underlining idea of leadership is ‘leading people’ while the idea of management is ‘control thing’. This is relevant to the definition leadership proposed by Covey (2004) as ‘communicating to people their worth and potential so clearly that they come to see it in themselves’. Covey (2004, p. 101) also said that

‘We can’t ‘lead’ things. In fact, it wasn’t until I turned over the management of my company to my son Stephen, and a team of people with strengths that compensated for my weaknesses that it really became profitable. You can’t lead inventories and cash flow and costs. You have to manage them. Why? Because things don’t have power and freedom to choose. Only people do. So you lead (empower) people. You manage and control things”.

Things that people can manage are among others; money, costs, information, time, structure, systems, processes, inventory, physical resources, facilities and tools. In terms of higher education such things as curriculum, syllabus, schedule, course design, lesson plan and so forth should be managed by lecturers while students should be led.

Covey’s definition explains that leadership is not the province of formal authority in an organization or company. Therefore, to cultivate the leadership talent and ability, Covey (2004) suggests that leadership influence should be governed by principles. When a person lives by them, her or his influence and moral authority increase and she or he is often given moral even greater moral authority.

The literature review on leadership and management reinforces that both of them are vital and that either one without the other is insufficient. Therefore, in the context of this paper, lecturers should develop both leadership and management skills and ability.

3.2 Leadership in Islam

The concept of Islamic leadership is rooted in the teaching of the Qur’an and example of the Prophet Muhammad. The Islamic concept of leadership first emerges from the Qur’anic verse that expressed Allah’s wish to appoint His vicegerent on earth soil as to maintain justice among the creations both human beings and jinns that would worship Him. On hearing this, the angels were shocked and inquired: “Do thou place therein one who will do harm therein and will shed blood, while we, we hymn Thy praise and sanctify thee…?” (QS. 2: 30). What these verses inferred is that Adam is the representative of Allah on earth who is to live, worships, and maintain justice among other human beings.

Muhammad in Islam, as the first leader of the Muslim community, is the prime example of a kind of personality that stood on its own merits. This is why his words, deeds and approval are taken as an ideal pattern and regarded as the Islamic tradition and was accepted as the leader of the Muslim society.

Muhammad is introduced in the Qur’an as Rasulullah (the messenger of God) and so are the other prophets. Their authority is based on two principles; 1) Receiving the divine message, 2) spreading the message and seeing that it is carried out. The authority of other Muslim leaders likewise is based on two principles; 1) to understand the message revealed to Muhammad and, 2) to spread it and see it is carried out.

The understanding of Islamic leadership cannot be separated from the understanding that Islam is socialistic, because the object of Islam is the totality of humanity (Ezzati, 1994). This constitutes that in Islam, the human face, man’s humanity and the entire humanity count. The truth cannot be the property of a person, persons, a group, groups, a race, a nation and cannot be monopolized. It belongs to everybody, to all creatures and to the entire humanity. The human mind or soul has no vision of a relation between man and his fellows greater or a nobler than that of intellectual intercourse, and certainly no vision of a world other than that in which any man may influence, determine, transform, or refashion his fellow men by argument or examples.

It is also believed that the Muslim community is the community of ‘amr ma’ruf nahi munkar, and thus leads humanity and deserves leadership. This duty is the duty of the community first and through it the duty of its members. The leadership thus basically belongs to the community and then to its members. This is why the prophet said; “All of you are leaders and are responsible for your leadership. The ruler is leader of his subjects, the man is a leader of his family, the woman is a leader and is responsible for her husband’s house and his offspring; and so all of you are leader and are responsible for your subjects” (Shahih Al-Bukhari No. 893, 7138).

Ezzati (1994) maintains that the logical consequence of Islamic theology, tradition, Qur’anic verses is that the concept of Islamic leadership bears the following features;

1. The concept of leadership must be harmonious with the doctrine of Tauhid.

2. God is the head of the Muslim community.

3. Leadership has been given to the Muslim community and to the Prophet as the divine trust.

4. Leadership is not a political power; it is a responsibility to provide security and peace for the Muslim society to enable it to fulfill its divine purpose and goal.

5. Leadership is closely associated and actually based on the doctrine of Amr ma’ruf nahi munkar (bidding the doing of good and forbidding the abominable).

6. Leadership is a social responsibility (wajib al-kafai) originally belongs to the community as a whole and the government and leaders simply represent the community.

7. Leadership is a responsibility in Islam started with Muhammad and his leadership was based in his risalah (his mission as the messenger of God) and his authority was purely accidental and not original).

8. Prophethood and Islamic leadership is the responsibility of spreading the word of God, leading and guiding society and teaching and educating it, so that it is able to fulfill the divine purpose.

9. Leadership in Islam cannot be monopolized by a group, a race, a nation, etc.

10. There is nothing which must be performed by religious leaders which cannot be done by ordinary people except those which need knowledge of Shari’ah and specialization in Islam.

11. Leadership is a responsibility not a position; it is associated with duties not with privileges. Leadership in Islam is not a symbolic institute nor is it associated with symbolism and symbols.

3.3 Framework for Developing Islamic Leadership and Management for Lectures

Lecturers cannot deny serving their leadership functions due to several reasons. First, globalization has promoted a number of values which are un-Islamic. Therefore it is the duty of the lecturers to challenge the negative forces of globalization by educating Islamic values to students. Second, referring to Ezzati’s opinion that Leadership is a social responsibility (wajib al-kafai) originally belonging to the community as a whole – and the government and leaders simply represent the community-, lecturers cannot get rid of this social responsibility. Fulfilling this responsibility manifests their duty in taking part in the process of amr ma’ruf nahi munkar. Third, lecturers work in educational institutions, meaning that their job is to educate, transferring not only the knowledge but also the values to students’ mind.

A framework for cultivating lecturer’s Islamic leadership and management is needed in order to implement the idea. The following is the framework adapted from the one proposed by Covey (2004)


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